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1 Praktek Pengelolaan Lahan LAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES.

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1 1 Praktek Pengelolaan Lahan LAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

2 2 Land use and land management practices: Concepts, terms and classification principles Rob Lesslie, Bureau of Rural Sciences Land management practices information priorities, classification and mapping – towards an agreed national approach. Kamberra Winery, Canberra 11-12 May 2004

3 3 1. PENDAHULUAN The purpose of this paper is to: outline key concepts and terms associated with land use and land management practices; outline the principles underpinning the Australian Land Use and Management (ALUM) classification (the nationally agreed land use classification system for land use) that relate to land management practices; and address the relationship between the ALUM classification and land management practices information.

4 4 2. ISTILAH PENTING The term ‘land management practices’ is one of a number that describe aspects of landscape occupation, use and management. There is often confusion among these terms. For example, ‘land use’ and ‘land cover’ may be applied in the same context, perhaps because of the common use of remotely sensed satellite imagery or photography for mapping. The distinction between ‘land use’ and ‘land management practice’ is also not always well understood. The following definitions are offered:

5 5 PENUTUP MUKA LAHAN Land cover This refers to the observed physical surface of the earth, including various combinations of vegetation types, soils, exposed rocks, water bodies.

6 6 PENGGUNAAN LAHAN This refers to the purpose to which land is committed, including the production of goods (such as crops, timber and manufactures) and services (such as defence, recreation, biodiversity and natural resources protection). Some land uses, such as cropping, have a characteristic land cover pattern. These land uses frequently appear in land cover classifications. Other land uses, such as nature conservation, are not readily discriminated by a characteristic land cover pattern. For example, where the land cover is woodland land use may be timber production or nature conservation.

7 7 PRAKTEK PENGELOLAAN LAHAN This refers to the means by which the land management objective is achieved - the 'how' of land use (eg cultivation practices such as minimum tillage or direct drilling). Some land management practices, such as stubble disposal, tillage and rotation systems, may be discriminated by characteristic land cover patterns. Teknologi Mulsa Pengolahan Tanah Pergiliran Tanaman

8 KOMODITAS TANAMAN Usually refers to an agricultural or mining product that can be processed. Commodity information may relate to land use and land cover. Tebu harus diolah menjadi gula

9 9 PENGUASAAN LAHAN Land Tenure The form of an interest in land. Some forms of tenure (such as pastoral or mineral leases or nature conservation reserves) relate directly to land use and land management. Land tenurial system lahan sawah ditandai oleh pematang petakan lahan

10 10 KEMAMPUAN DAN KESESUAIAN LAHAN Land capability assesses the limitations to land use imposed by land characteristics and specifies management options. Land suitability (part of the process of land evaluation) is the fitness of a given type of land for a specified kind of land use.

11 11 KLASIFIKASI Classification is the ordering or arrangement of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships. It entails ordering in a systematic and logically consistent way, according to clear and precise diagnostic criteria.

12 12 Ideally, a classification system should incorporate characteristics that make it: Scale independent, meaning that the classes at all levels should be applicable at any scale or level of detail; Source independent, implying that it is independent of the means used to collect information, whether satellite imagery, aerial photography, field survey or some combination of them is used; comprehensive, scientifically sound and practically oriented;

13 13 capable of meeting the needs of a variety of users (neither single-project oriented nor taking a sectoral approach); users can use just a sub-set of the classification and develop from there according to their own specific needs; facilitate comparisons between classes derived from different classifications; able to describe the complete range of features with clear class boundary definition that are unambiguous and unique;

14 14 adapted to fully describe variation with the minimal set of classifiers necessary (the less classifiers used in the definition, the less the error expected and the less time and resources necessary for field validation); and based on a clear and systematic description of the class, where diagnostic criteria used to define a class must be clearly defined. (after Gregorio and Jansen 2000)

15 15 Classification systems are generally either hierarchical or non-hierarchical. Most systems are hierarchically structured because this accommodates different levels of information starting with structured broad-level classes allowing further subdivision into more detailed sub-classes. At each level defined classes are mutually exclusive.

16 16 Classification can be completed in two ways: An a priori classification is based upon the definition of classes before data collection takes place. This means all possible combinations of diagnostic criteria must be resolved beforehand by the classification. The main advantage is that classes are standardized, independent of the area under investigation and methods employed. However, some identified objects may not be easily assigned to pre-defined classes.

17 17 A posteriori classification is based upon definition of classes after clustering, based on the similarity or dissimilarity of field samples. The advantage of this type of classification is flexibility, adaptability and minimal generalization. However, because this approach depends on the specific characteristics of area under investigation, it is unable to define standardized classes.

18 18 4. Land management practices classification As yet, no formal classification system for land management practices has been developed; a difficult objective given the range of phenomena that can be considered land management practice (from mechanical cultivation practices, to farming systems and business management methods). Pengelolaan lahan sawah mempunyai ciri spesifik, berbeda dengan lahan kering Sumber: foto smn 2010

19 19 The classification is designed to provide for users who are interested in both processes (eg land management practices) and outputs (eg commodities)

20 20 Among other difficulties associated with the classification of land management practices is that a wide range of practices may apply concurrently at any given point in the landscape – this means that they are not amenable to dichotomous classification and mapping. They may also vary over very short time frames (which may or may not accurately reflect long-term management intent). Aksesibilitas transportasi menjadi penentu dinamika konversi lahan. Foto smn 2011. Foto smn 2011

21 21 Sustainability goals of the land manegement are identified as: Cultural heritage, financial return, greenhouse and air quality, nature conservation, quality of life, soil health, water quantity and quality. Konversi lahan sawah menjadi perumahan terjadi karena tekanan ekonomi pasar.

22 22 Four main themes of farm management practice are identified: Agricultural production system. Practices relating to the system that produces the relevant commodity, including the management of soils, plants and animals (eg tactical grazing, or opportunity cropping). Pengelolaan usahatani biasanya dimulai dengan pengolahan lahan usaha. Foto : smn 2010

23 Environmental management. Practices relating to the management of the natural environment and off-farm environmental issues, including dryland salinity, biodiversity and water quality (eg integrated pest management, retention, rehabilitation or restoration of native vegetation).

24 Business management. Practices that relate to the management of farm business and includes financial management, product marketing, benchmarking and monitoring and management of risk (eg annual budget and investment plans).

25 Kesejahteraan Personal dan Komunitasnya Practices that relate to the personal well-being of farming families and to their engagement in communities of common interest. (eg maintaining a commitment to family by balancing work, leisure, family time and community involvement).

26 26 Twenty four classes of management practice (for dryland agriculture) are identified: 1. Agroforestry 2. Animal condition management 3. Breeding program 4. Business and financial planning 5. Chemical contamination avoidance 6. Commitment to family 7. Community and industry participation

27 8. Crop rotation : Pergiliran Tanaman 9. Effective management of labour and resources 10. Environmental monitoring and benchmarking 11. Identification and protective management of cultural heritage

28 28 13. Integrated pest management = Pengendalian Hama Terpadu

29 29 14. Knowledge and skill development 15. Management according to land capability

30 30 16. Managing for weather and climate variation 17. Nutrient budgeting 18. Occupational health and safety 19. Quality assurance

31 31 20. Retention and management of native vegetation 21. Soil conservation 22. Tactical grazing 23. Tillage and stubble management 24. Waterway and floodplain management

32 32 OBSERVASI 1. ‘Land management practice’ is one of a number of related terms that describe aspects of land occupation, use and management. 2. Classification is the ordering or arrangement of objects into groups or sets in a systematic and logically consistent way, according to clear and precise diagnostic criteria. Sumber: Foto smn-2010

33 Land management practice refers to the means by which the land use objective is achieved – the ‘how’ of land use (eg cultivation practices such as minimum tillage or direct drilling). Some land management practices, such as stubble disposal, tillage and rotation systems, may be discriminated by characteristic land cover patterns.

34 34 Table 1: The Australian Land Use and Management Classification version 5 (November 2001)

35 35 Penggunaan lahan secara alamiah

36 36 Penggunaan lahan kering untuk pertanian

37 37 Penggunaan lahan pertanian irigasi

38 38 Penggunaan lahan intensif

39 39 SUMBERDaYa aIR

40 40 Table 2: ALUM 5 land use classification framework for Levels II, III and IV, showing land use and land management practice as related tertiary class 'themes'

41 41

42 42

43 43 Table 3: Land management practice themes and classes available through ABS’ Agricultural Census

44 44 References Barson, M.M. (1999). Workshop on Land Use Management Mapping. Report to the National Land and Water Resources Audit. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. Baxter, J. T. and Russell, L. D. (1994). Land Use Mapping Requirements for Natural Resource Management in the Murray-Darling Basin. Project M305: Task 6. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Victoria. Bureau of Rural Sciences (2002) Land use mapping at Catchment Scale: Principles, procedures and definitions. Edition 2. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. Clifton, C. McGregor, C. Standen, R. and Fritsch S. (2004) Current recommended practice: a directory for dryland broadacre agriculture. MDBC Publication 01/04. Murray-Darling Basin Commission. Gregorio, A. and Jansen, L. (2000). Land cover classification system. FAO Land and Water Development Division. FAO. Sokal R. (1974). Classification: purposes, principles, progress, prospects. Science 185 (4157): pp. 1115-1123.

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