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Enabling Open Scholarship Transition to an Open Access policy Alma Swan Director, SPARC Europe Director, Key Perspectives Ltd Convenor, Enabling Open Scholarship.

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Presentation on theme: "Enabling Open Scholarship Transition to an Open Access policy Alma Swan Director, SPARC Europe Director, Key Perspectives Ltd Convenor, Enabling Open Scholarship."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enabling Open Scholarship Transition to an Open Access policy Alma Swan Director, SPARC Europe Director, Key Perspectives Ltd Convenor, Enabling Open Scholarship Open Access event, University of the Western Cape Bellville, South Africa, 13 August 2013

2 Enabling Open Scholarship Open Access Immediate Free (to use) Free (of restrictions) Access to the peer-reviewed literature (and data) Not vanity publishing Not a ‘stick anything up on the Web’ approach Moving scholarly communication into the Web Age

3 Enabling Open Scholarship Open Access: how Open Access repositories Open Access journals (www.doaj.org)www.doaj.org Open Access monographs

4 Enabling Open Scholarship Open Access repositories Digital collections Most usually institutional Sometimes centralised (subject-based) Interoperable Form a network across the world Create a global database of openly-accessible research Currently c2500

5 Enabling Open Scholarship N.B. 9 items from 2013

6 Enabling Open Scholarship Open Access journals Content available free of charge online In many cases, free of restrictions on use too Some charge at the ‘front end’ More than half do not levy a charge at all Around 8500 of them Listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ:

7 Enabling Open Scholarship Open Access: why? Make research optimally effective and efficient Maximise the visibility and impact of research, wherever it is done and whoever does it Make research available without barriers to other researchers, north/north, south/south, south/north and north/south Enable new semantic technologies (text-mining and data-mining) Enable effective monitoring and assessment of research Make publicly-funded research available to the ‘public’

8 Enabling Open Scholarship Author advantages from Open Access Visibility Usage Impact Profiling and marketing

9 Enabling Open Scholarship University of Liege repository: authors deposit

10 Enabling Open Scholarship And the material gets used

11 Enabling Open Scholarship Individual article usage

12 Enabling Open Scholarship Individual article usage

13 Enabling Open Scholarship Individual authors’ usage

14 Enabling Open Scholarship Individual authors’ usage

15 Enabling Open Scholarship Impact Range = 36%-200% (Data: Stevan Harnad and co-workers)

16 Enabling Open Scholarship Engineering Data: Gargouri & Harnad, 2010 Citations

17 Enabling Open Scholarship Clinical medicine Citations Data: Gargouri & Harnad, 2010

18 Enabling Open Scholarship Social science Citations Data: Gargouri & Harnad, 2010

19 Enabling Open Scholarship Institutional advantages from Open Access Visibility, usage Impact Profiling and marketing Outreach to the public: demonstrating social return Economic benefits

20 Enabling Open Scholarship “I am asked how many articles my researchers publish each year, and I have to say ‘I have no idea!’” Professor Bernard Rentier, Rector, University of Liege, Belgium, explaining one of the reasons why he has built an institutional Open Access repository and introduced a mandatory policy on Open Access

21 Enabling Open Scholarship MIT’s repository usage

22 Enabling Open Scholarship Webometrics

23 Enabling Open Scholarship The public Independent researchers Education sector Professional community Practitioner community Interested ‘lay’ public Business sector, including innovative SMEs

24 Enabling Open Scholarship PubMed Central 2 million full-text articles 420,000 unique users per day: 25% universities 17% companies 18% government and others 40% citizens

25 Enabling Open Scholarship EU CIS studies

26 Enabling Open Scholarship

27 Economic implications in Denmark Access to research articles by SMEs is very/extremely important: 48% 79% have access difficulties Difficulties in searching/accessing articles: €73m per year to researchers in Danish firms Average delay to product or process development without access to academic research: 2.2 years For new products: €4.8 million per company Houghton, Swan & Brown, 2011

28 Enabling Open Scholarship Total Research Income: QUT and sector Data: Tom Cochrane, Deputy Vice-Chancellor, QUT

29 Enabling Open Scholarship Policy Must be mandatory Funder policies: 81 Institutional policies: 177 Sub-institutional policies: 40 Multi-institutional policies: 6

30 Enabling Open Scholarship The effect of a mandatory policy

31 Enabling Open Scholarship Mandatory policies

32 Enabling Open Scholarship Funder policies

33 Enabling Open Scholarship Institutional policies

34 Enabling Open Scholarship

35 “The case for Open Access within a university is not simply political or economic or professional. It needs to rest in the notion of what a university is and what it should be.... It is central to the university’s position in the public space” Professor Martin Hall, Vice Chancellor of the University of Salford, UK

36 Enabling Open Scholarship “It is one of the noblest duties of a university to advance knowledge and to diffuse it, not merely among those who can attend the daily lectures, but far and wide.” Daniel Coit Gilman First President, Johns Hopkins University

37 Enabling Open Scholarship Thank you for listening Good practice guide for institutional policy-making:

38 Enabling Open Scholarship Policy guidance Good Practice Guide for Institutions: Published for Open Access Week 2012 Developed at Harvard UNESCO OA Policy Guidelines: Published February 2012 PDF: eBook:


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