2 What is a report? (definition) A written statementprepared for the benefit of othersdescribing what has happened or a state of affairsnormally based on investigation.
3 WHAT IS A REPORT? (cont.)A report is a piece of factual writing, usually based on some kind of research or real-life experience.Report is not a letter.It usually focuses on factual information about the past, but should also include recommendations.
4 TARGET READER -usually people who are asking for the report: THE PURPOSEYou may be asked:to give informationevaluate somethingmake suggestions or recommendationsTARGET READER -usually people who are asking for the report:an official group of people in authorityyour employera group of colleagues you study or work with
5 CONTENT- What information should I include? Ensure that you fully understand the purpose of the report.Make a number of points in answer to the question.Use section headings for clarity, which can be underlined as well.Include facts or results of a survey or research.Give description and explanation in support of each argument.Summarise your conclusions in the final part.Conclude with a personal recommendation.
6 THE REGISTER THE STYLE It depends on the target reader The report will almost always be FORMALNo colloquial phrases!No contractions (don't, haven't, 'cos..)!Avoid phrasal verbs (pick up, set up, etc.)THE STYLEACCURATECLEAR AND CONCISEOBJECTIVE
7 THE STYLE (cont.) ACCURATE CLEAR AND CONCISE true facts, precise wording, supporting data, reference to sourcesCLEAR AND CONCISEclear organisation of the text: sections, subsections, headings, subheadings, paragraphing, numbering...avoid unnecessary detail and long sentencesavoid repetitionsgive essential information, your evaluation and recommendation
8 THE STYLE (cont.) OBJECTIVE content – include all the relevant information, do not be biasedan impersonal style is often appropriate, avoiding overuse of the pronoun 'I'use passive and reporting structures insteadtry to analyse your experiences, not simply describe them You will need narrative tenses for this.
9 THE LAYOUT Start with a TITLE Use CLEAR HEADINGS Each SECTION its own PARAGRAPH.Use NUMBERS (1) or BULLETS (•)Companies often have their own format of standard reports and do not completely follow the structure presented below.Start with a TITLE.Use CLEAR HEADINGS (which can be underlined) to organize your thoughts and to help the reader see how the report is organised. Make sure there is a line space between headings.Give each SECTION in the report its own PARAGRAPH. Where appropriate divide sections into paragraphs.Use NUMBERS (1) or BULLETS (•) to make important items stand out, especially if you want to single them out.Companies often have their own format of standard reports and do not completely follow the structure presented below.
10 STRUCTURE TITLE TERMS OF REFERENCE (or INTRODUCTION or BACKGROUND) (e.g. Report on the Company Image)TERMS OF REFERENCE(or INTRODUCTION or BACKGROUND)The purpose of the report: who asked for it, what is to be investigated, when should it be submitted by?PROCEDURE (or METHOD)Outlines the steps taken to make an investigation. It explains how the data were collected, listing sources consulted.
11 STRUCTURE (cont.) FINDINGS CONCLUSION(S) It sets out the information itself, with appropriate headings and subheadings, if the report covers more than one topic.CONCLUSION(S)Summary of the main findings, conclusions and assessments.RECOMMENDATION(S) (if required)The writer may suggest the solution to the problem ivestigated.