Presentation on theme: "All Students Can Succeed"— Presentation transcript:
1Jed Baker, Ph.D. www.socialskillstrainingproject.com All Students Can Succeed! Effective Interventions for behavioral and social challengesJed Baker, Ph.D.
2Quote from Yoda – Star Wars FEAR IS THE PATH TO THE DARK SIDEFEAR leads to ANGERANGER leads to HATEHATE leads to SUFFERING
390% of Teaching and Parenting is Tolerance Can we tolerate our own discomfort long enough to think about what to do?Discipline is a starting point: But what if it does not work?
4Handling Our Own Feelings Hope! Yet expect delays in what you want to accomplish.The individual’s behavior is not intended to simply challenge your authority, but is rather a reflection of his/her lack of coping skills.Most observers do not question your competence, they get that this is part of dealing with kids or challenging students. Laugh it off.
5Quote from Educator/Philosopher Chaim Ginott (1971) “As a teacher, I have come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather.As a teacher, I possess tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal.In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, a child humanized or dehumanized.”
6OverviewUnderstanding challenging behaviors in social communication disordersOverview of behavior management and frustration skillsRelationshipCrisis ManagementRepeat Problems/Prevention plan (www.apbs.org)
7Overview of Tiered Social Skills Tier 1: School-wideAdding structure and options at lunch/recessTraining of aides, staffPeer sensitivity training, creating inclusion environmentsTier 2: Case conference students in need of skill enhancementLunch bunches, social skill groups, theme based groupsConsultation with specialistsTier 3: Individualized Social Skill Action Plans for 504/IEPsTarget Relevant skills: parental inputEstablish motivation to socializeTeach skillsGeneralization: teacher/aide/parent promptsPeer sensitivity training, peer buddiesEvaluating outcome: teacher/aide/parent input
8Overview Key Components of social skills training Tier 3 What to teach? (Gresham et al., 2001) Match to deficitMotivation (White et al., 2006) Social/intrinsicSkill acquisition (Bellini & Peters, 2008; Mateson et al., 2007)Generalization (Bellini, 2007) Dose, natural settingPeer sensitivity (Baker, 2003, 2005; Hughs & Carter, 2008)Evaluating outcome
9Difficulties Associated with Challenging Behavior Difficulty with abstract thinking & perspective-taking.Misbehavior is often unintentional! Teach perspective more than discipline.Inflexibility: Limited problem solvingLearning facts is more enjoyable than socializing.Preparation and expanded problem solving avoids meltdowns.
10Difficulties Associated with Challenging Behavior Low Frustration ToleranceLimbic system: Controls emotions and fight, flight or freeze responseForebrain: Reasoning and planningLimbic system can hijack the rest of the brainPrevent rage and distract when in rage.
11Behavior Management Step 1: Relationship Issues Warmth and caring Structure with use of visual supports, differentiated instructionBuild confidence: 80/20 ruleAvoid escalating power struggles.
12Behavior Management Step 2: Crisis Management Non-verbal skills to increase safety.Listen, agree, apologize when necessaryCollaborate: Ask “what do you want? Lets find the right way to get that.”When logic is gone: DistractNovel itemsSpecial interestsSensory activitiesIgnore if you are triggerMake a plan for next time
13Behavior Management Step 3: Repeat Behavior Problems Explore why it happens: Interview, observe & and keep an ABC journalNo More Meltdowns APP, available at APP store orDevelop a good prevention plan
14Typical Triggers Biological issues: hunger, tiredness, illness Sensory issues: noise, light, touch, over-stimulation, boredomLack of structureChallenging or new work, feared situationsHaving to wait, not get what one wants, disappointmentsThreats to self-esteem: losing, mistakes, criticismUnmet wishes for attention: ignored, want others to laugh
15Components of a Behavior Plan see www.apbs.org Change the triggers: sensory/biological, structure, task demandsTeach skills to deal with triggers:Reward new skillsLoss system if not already frustrated
16Demands for Work Change the triggers Teach “Trying When It’s Hard” Model, prompt rather than test, explain learning curveGive choice of work, use special interestsVisual supports: instructions, webs, outlines, labelsReduce length, use timerTeach “Trying When It’s Hard”Try a littleAsk to watch first or ask for helpTake a break and try againNegotiate how much
17Demands for Work Reward system For trying, not for being correct Trying Poster4. Avoid loss system when frustrated
19Waiting, Accepting No, Stopping Fun Change the triggersUse a visual timer and shorten wait timeCreate a visual schedule. Use a “to do” boxHighlight reward for waiting/accepting no & prime aheadTeach skills (invisible payoff)Waiting: get some laterAccepting no: get something else laterStopping on time: get to go back later
20Waiting, Accepting No, Stopping Fun Reward systemPoints for waiting, accepting no and stopping on timeDisappointment posterNatural loss systems:Can’t stop, can’t do it again
21Self-esteem: Mistakes, Losing, Teasing Change the triggersOffer choice: let them win or not see mistakesStack the deck: with activities that they do well (80/20)Prime aheadProtect from teasingTeach skills (invisible payoff)Mistakes help us learnWin the invisible game: friendship/self-controlTeasing: check it out 1st, stop, ignore, report
22Self-esteem: Mistakes, Losing, Teasing Reward system:Rewards for handling imperfection are greater than rewards for winning or doing work right.Avoid loss systems when frustrated
23Unmet Needs for Attention Change the triggersSchedule attention: special timeUse a timer and red/green cardsProvide an appropriate outlet: theatre, presentationTeach “Positive Ways to Get Attention”How to get adult attentionHow to get peer attention: Public versus private topicsRules of comedy: Can’t make fun of vulnerable, use slapstick, random thoughts, and self-deprecation
24Unmet Needs for Attention Reward system:Rewards for appropriate topicsLoss systems:Response costWarningWarningLoss of:snackLoss of:10 minSimpsonsLoss of:20 minSimpsonsLoss of:30 minSimpsons
25Sensory Needs: Self-Stimulation Change the triggersAlter sensory environmentFor boredom, reduce wait time and engageModify frustrating workTeach skillsAlternative ways/times to self-stimHow to be a self-advocate for better environment
26Sensory Needs: Self-Stimulation Reward systemReward new ways to self-stimLoss systems:Maybe response cost
27Unexpected Triggers: Self-Calming Prepare for unexpectedCollaborate on ways to distract and soothe in preparation for the unexpected upsets. Create a relaxation folder.Establish a safe personTeach skillsSelf-talk: “All problems can be solved if you can wait and talk to the right person.”Draw or write the thing that distracts/soothes you.
28Unexpected Triggers: Self-Calming Reward system:for using calming strategiesNatural loss systems:outbursts will limit continued participation in certain events.
30Lifeline RulesYou can use 50:50, Ask a Specific Person, Poll the audience.You may use lifelines more than once, but as a group you have only three lifelines.
31Is that your final answer? For $8,000Is that your final answer?The rule of thumb regarding dealing with a full blown meltdown is:A. Try to reason with the youngster when he is upset.B. Do not bother to reason with him, instead try to take away privileges while he is upset.C. Try to distract him while he is upset, and then when he is calm, develop a plan to deal with the problem if it happens again.D. Use promises or threats.Lifelines
32Resources Social Skills Books Elementary Level DVDMusic CDChallenging behaviorNow an APP too!Social Skills BooksSocial skill picture book for high schoolSocial skill picture bookElementary LevelMiddle, High School and Beyond
33Key Components of Skills Training Prioritize skill goalsMotivationSkill acquisitionGeneralizationPeer sensitivityEvaluate outcome
34Action Plan Prioritize 3-4 skill goals for each student Consider how to measure skillModificationsWhere will you teach skill lesson?Class, group, individualWhat strategies to teach?Structured learning, Social Stories, cognitive picture rehearsal, video modeling, picture books
35Action Plan How will you generalize? Should we target typical peers? Prime with cue card, chartWhen will you coach them?Review with card. Chart or self-monitoringReward/loss programShould we target typical peers?
361. Motivation Pre-verbal Reasoner Verbal Reasoner External/contrived Internal/naturalisticPre-verbalReasonerDTT-LovaasAdult directed, reward not necessarily related to responsePRT – KoegelVBT – SundbergReward is naturally related to responseFloortime DIR – GreenspanFollows lead of child in playRDI-Gutstein, activity pulls for attentionVerbal ReasonerBehavior charts and token systems where rewards promised for target behaviorsLink behavior to student’s goalsIncrease self-awareness of strengths prior to challenges (at least by 14)Have students teach othersMake interaction fun
372. Skill Acquisition How to teach Where to teach Limited receptive language: ABA (DTT/PRT/VBT), video modeling, picture books, cognitive picture rehearsal.Good receptive language: Social Stories, structured learningWhere to teachClass FormatSmall Group: Talk time, skill time, activity time.Individual: When attention and cooperation may not be available in group.
383. Generalization Prime the skill Coach skill use as it happens Verbally cue the skillVisually cue the skill: Assignment sheet, cue card or behavior chartCoach skill use as it happensBaiting in classNatural situations, lunch bunches, cooperative group projects, play times, internships, frustrating work
393. Generalization Provide feedback about skill use Classroom Marble JarIndividual reward chartSelf-monitoring
404. Peer SensitivitySensitivity/kindness lessons for typical peers and staff.To increase understanding when they are disliked:Include those who are left outStand up for those who are teasedOffer help if someone is upsetTo create peer buddies/coaches
414. Peer Sensitivity Generalization of kindness: Classroom milieu: The marble jarLunch buddyAcademic buddyExtra-curricular buddy
43Evaluating Outcome Remnants of behavior Friendships Grades Bullying reports
44Overview of Peer Sensitivity I am here to talk with you about a student in your class. He is the same as you and different.How are we all the same and different?We are also different in the way we sense things?
45What are the Five Senses? Sense DifficultySeeing BlindnessHearing DeafTouch Touch ChangesTaste Taste ChangesSmell Smell Changes
46The Sixth Sense: The Social Sense 1. Knowing what to do and say in social situations.Starting ConversationsAsking to Play2. Reading body language3. Easy to make friends.Hey. How’s it going?Can I play too?
47Social Blindness: Problems with the Social Sense 1. Trouble knowing what to do and say in social situations.Starting ConversationsAsking to PlayOff the topic2. Trouble with body language.Little Eye Contact3. Hard to make friends4. Trouble with Sports.?
48John’s Difficulties: Social Blindness 1. Trouble knowing what to do and say in social situations.Starting ConversationsAsking to Play2. Hard to read body language3. Hard to make friends4. Talks a lot about video games5. Annoys when rejected
49John’s Strengths and Talents 1. Intelligent even though new work may upset him.2. Great artist.3. Excellent memory for facts4. Good at Video Games5. Caring Person
50Famous People with Social Blindness Albert Einstein - PhysicistSocial difficulties, Learning DisabilityBill Gates - Founder of MicrosoftSocial Difficulties
51Famous People with Social Blindness Thomas Edison - InventorSocial difficulties, Learning ProblemsWolfgang Mozart - ComposerSocial Difficulties
52Famous People Marie Curie – Nobel prize winner in chemistry Social difficulties, discovered radioactive elementsTemple Grandin – designer of livestock handling facilities, associate professor of animal science, noted authorSocial Difficulties
53Group Exercise1. One student leaves for a moment while others learn how to join in.2. Student returns and tries to join in.Everyone gets rewards for joining
54How Can We Help John?Invite him to join in conversation and play during lunch/recess and other times.Stand up for him if he is teased.Offer help if he is upset.Marble jarLunch buddiesExtra-curricular buddies
55Social Skills Training Strategies InformalIncidental Teaching (all the time, most important)FormalGood Receptive LanguageStructured Learning (groups or individual)Social-Stories (individual)
56Social Skills Training Strategies Limited Receptive LanguageABA: DTT, PRT, VBT, (For prerequisite skills: following instructions, action /object identification & basic language concepts)Social Skill Picture Books (groups or individual)Cognitive-Picture Rehearsal (individual)Video Review (groups or individual)Greenspan, first stages of RDI
57Incidental TeachingIt is experiential rather than a didactic skill lessonIt is coaching social interaction as it is unfolding naturally. It involves:Pointing out the perception/feelings of others in the moment.Highlighting non-verbal cues.Correcting misperceptions (e.g., accidents vs. malicious actions).Prompting conversation, play, & emotion management skills as they are neededSocial Autopsy is an important component.
58Structured Learning Didactic instruction of skill steps Model correct way, and maybe wrong wayRole-play with feedback until proficient
59Structured Learning Practice and Generalization Steps go home to parents, teacher or aide whoQuizzesModels & Role-playsPromptsReinforces with praise, reward, or token economy.Need a gimmick for role-play or instruction!
60Listening Position 1. Make eye contact. 2. Quiet hands and feet. Stay still.3. Quiet mouth. Don’t talk while others are talking.
61Example of Picture Books Accepting No for an Answer 1. Sometimes parents and people say “No” when you ask them for something.2. Say, “Okay” and do not get mad.3. If you accept no, then the other person will be happy and may let you do something you want to do later.
621. Sometimes people say “No” when you ask them for something. Can I play this game?No. Do thiswork first.When the boy asks to play the game, the teacher says no and tells him to do his work first.
632. Say, “Okay” and do not get mad. I am happyhe accepted no.Wrong WayThe boy gets mad and does not accept no for an answer.Right WayThe boy says okay and does not get mad. He knows he will get to play the game later.No. You must go sitand do your work.No. I wantto play now.Okay.
643. If you accept no, then the other person will be happy and may let you do something you want to do later.Right WayThe boy now gets to play because he waited until he finished his work.I am happy I waited.I am angry that I stillhave to do work andcan’t play.Wrong WayThe boy still can’t play because he would not accept no and wait to play.Now that youfinished your work, youcan play the game.GoodMorning.
65Cognitive Picture Rehearsal Antecedents: Triggers to problem behaviorBehavior: Appropriate behavior or skillConsequence: Rewards, not punishments.
67The teacher tells Matt to get off the computer. I feel mad.Time to get off the computer.
68Matt remembers what will happen if he gets off the computer. If I get off,the teacher will be happyand let me use the computeragain. She will also giveme a point towards my reward.Time to get off the computer
69Matt decides to accept that he must get off the computer. I am so happy and proudof Matt. He did a greatjob listening.Thank you for stopping.Okay. I will stop.
70The teacher rewards Matt for getting off the computer. You get a pointon your reward chart.Okay. I will stop.
71Later that day, the teacher lets Matt use the computer again because he did such a great job getting off the computer earlier.You can use the computer again becauseyou got off the computer earlier.Thanks!
72Social StoriesCreate a narrative, written in the first person, to increase understanding of target social situation.Start with child’s perspective of a target situation and expand it to include others’ perspectives. Give choices and show positive outcome.
73Social StoriesUse 2-5 descriptive and perspective statements for every directive statement.Use language that makes sense to child.Read 3-5 times per day and just before target situation.
74Video Modeling or Review Video peers and then target student. Use to prime skill before situations.Use video to review behavior in target situations.
75Menu of Skills by Topic Area Prerequisites to learning from others:Joint AttentionReceptive language (intra-verbals)Core Conversational Skills (Responding and Initiating)Play and working cooperativelyUnderstanding Yours and Others’ FeelingsConflict resolution/Assertiveness/TeasingFriendship to DatingEmployment Skills