Presentation on theme: "Oral Presentation Skills"— Presentation transcript:
1Oral Presentation Skills Management 3200Advantages of Oral Presentations:Immediate feedbackSpeaker controlLess work for the audience
2Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this lecture, you should: Know how to plan and prepare an effective oral presentation utilizing the OABC principle.Feel confident in your ability to deliver a good oral presentation verbally and non-verbally.Be able to create and use visual aids to enhance verbal message.
3Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this lecture, you should: Understand how to set-up a room to facilitate the desired learning environment.Feel comfortable facilitating a question and answer session.Know how to make a group presentation more effective.Be able to evaluate your presentation.
4Oral Presentation Agenda PreparationPlanningOABCPresentationVoiceNon-verbal communicationVisual aidsRoom layoutImmediate feedbackSpeaker controlLess work for the audience
5Oral Presentation Agenda (cont’d) TimeQuestion & answer sessionPresentation tipsGeneralGroupPost-evaluationQ & AConclusionImmediate feedbackSpeaker controlLess work for the audience
6Preparation: Planning Create an objective to achieve purposeAnalyze audiencePlan timingConsider delivery methodsPlanningObjective/purpose (tell/sell, join/consult, explaining, motivating,inspiring)Purpose provides a criterion by which to judge the success of your presentation.Analyze audience – preoccupation – preexisting thoughts, and feelings about presenter and material. You must deal with them as they are. Consider titles, functions, decision maker, values, attitudes, what persuades them, point of view, etc.
7Delivery Methods Memorized Manuscript/Reading Preparation: PlanningDelivery MethodsMemorizedManuscript/ReadingExtemporaneous/Speaking from notesImpromptuOnce delivery method is selected, you can begin to plan how your notes will look.
8Preparation: Opening Must be creative/catch attention Question (rhetorical or other)Appropriate humorVisualInteresting storyGood/bad exampleQuoteHypothetical questionStartling factNow that we have discussed how to make general presentation decisions and plans, you now need to prepare the content of your presentation. Assuming the data has all been gathered, you must assemble the data in a logical format. The OABC format works well here.Opening – although the opening comes first, it is not written first. The agenda is usually written and the body developed prior to creating the opening and closing statements.In the opening, you need to get the audiences attention and prepare them for what is coming next. Possible openings include (read slide). You have seconds to decide if they like what they hear – you must connect – everything about you will be analyzed
9Preparation: Opening BLUF – bottom-line up-front Don’t apologize or make excusesWrite it lastConsider memorizing it
10Preparation: Agenda Outline major content area Group major points into seven itemsConsider having visible throughoutNext comes the agenda. This is the outline of your presentation. This is an excellent tool to keep participants together. If people get off track, they can easily catch up by referring to your agenda.AgendaOutline major content elements“George Miller’s magical number = 7 plus or minus 2 consider having it visible throughout speechWays to make it visiblepost on wallhandoutrepeat use of slide of agendause of “trackers” – upper or lower corner
11Preparation: Body Develop each major area from agenda Provide support Statistics, examples, testimonials, stories, analogies, explanationsSomething that will be rememberedChoose logical sequenceBuild-in internal summaries/transitionsYou must provide adequate support for each agenda item.Bodydevelop each of the major elements from the agendachoose a logical sequenceo criteriao direct sequenceo indirect sequenceo chronologyo case/effect/solutiono order of importanceo elimination of alternatives Things they will remember:interesting factvivid mental imageimportant to audienceimmediate applicationprior knowledgetake written notesbuild in many internal summaries/transitions Possible sequences:problem and solutioncause and effecttheory and plan of actiontime and spaceorder
12Questioning Why Ask? Closed vs. Open-ended Overhead vs. Direct Preparation: BodyQuestioningWhy Ask?Closed vs. Open-endedOverhead vs. DirectRelay vs. ReverseWhy ask?Check for understandingInvoke thoughGet an answerOverhead – question with no direct
13Questioning Getting Responses Ice-breaker Ten-Second Rule Preparation: BodyQuestioningGetting ResponsesIce-breakerTen-Second RuleListening skillsMovementMovement also helps maintain interest in other areas.
14Preparation: Conclusion Strong and clearEnsure purpose/objective is achievedRepeat major points/summarizeGive conclusions and recommendationsGive a challenge/action stepsConduct Q & APlan a solid ending after Q & AConclusionsq strong/ clearq purposeo repeat the major pointso give conclusions and recommendationso give a challengeo express hopes and feelings about messageo conduct and Q & A sessionq Don’t end with Q & A – be sure to take charge and provide an additional strong closing statemen
15Oral Presentation Agenda PreparationPresentationVoiceNon-verbal communicationVisual aidsRoom layoutTimeQuestion & answer sessionImmediate feedbackSpeaker controlLess work for the audience
16Presentation: Voice Pitch - high or low frequency Rate - speed at which you speakVolume - how loud you speakTone - cumulative effect of voiceFillersSilenceNo one pitch, rate, or volume is correct. Variation is good. Select based on emphasis needed.Silence is a punctuation mark of oral communicaiton
17Presentation: Non-verbal Two main sources: face and upper limbsEye Contact/Facial ExpressionThree-second conversations with audience membersUpper limbsUse to supplement your spoken message65-90% of communication is non-verbalBad arm positions:fig-leaf, gunshot wound, parade rest, podium clutch, hand ringing, pockets, hips, arms folded
18Presentation: Non-verbal Appearance/PostureNot noticedWell groomedSlightly more formal than audienceMovementUse floor space effectivelyMove toward audience naturallyDon’t pace or wanderPlace weight evenly on both feet
19Presentation: Visual Aids Visuals that DISTRACTfrom the Presentationshould not be used!Do NOT Use Visual Aids to:impress your audience with overly detailed tablesavoid interaction with your audiencemake more than one main pointpresent simple ideas that are easily stated verballypresent irrelevant dataRemember you are the most important visual aid.
20Presentation: Visual Aids Most common visual aids:Computer projected imagesOverhead projectorPosters and flip chartsAudiovisualHandoutsPhotographic slidesArtifactsVisual aids must increase comprehension and enhance presenation
21Proper Use of Visual Aids Presentation: Visual AidsProper Use of Visual AidsOVERHEAD/SLIDESFLIP CHARTSAUDIO-VISUALCharts/Newsprint/Posters6 X 6 rule, 2-3 colors (alternate), Upper/lower case – 3” letters, one idea per chartSticky notes, Pre-create, Post/tape, Tear, Write what is saidAngle – 45 degreeLine of sightOverheads/Slides6 x 6 rule; 18 point or higher for overheads; slides, one idea per chart, transition from one visual to the nextContrasting colors, 2-3 colors max, Simplify, avoid centering text, check line breaks, proof, Test – always have back-up plan/suppliesTape/straight, Pen as pointer, Line of sightLighted room if possible, Notes on frameCover irrelevant data, Number them, One idea per visualLine of sight, avoid fancy fonts and small lettersOne slide per 2 minute discussion (minimum)Practice with equipment, have someone advance slides if possibleRemember PP is not eh “Show”Audio visual - one foot trainee distance for every inch of screen sizePlay – turn on , Off - stop, Que up, Test volumeGeneral – do not talk to visual, remove visual when done with it, practice with visuals in room, don’t use irrelevant visuals, get rid of old newsLet someone else run the slides. Practice to achieve flow.When to use handouts?Handout
22Improper Layout of Power point Slide SoundsFly-insDistracting backgroundsLoud ColorsWild picturesStrange fonts & letter junkSmall fontsToo many bullets!
23General Issues to Consider Presentation: Visual AidsGeneral Issues to ConsiderPortabilityCostEase of creation and updatingEase of useVisibilityProfessional imageAvailabilityReliabilityIntrusiveness
24Presentation: Room Layout Eliminate distractionsWindows, wall hangings, colorsCarpeted with sound-absorbing walls and ceiling to ensure quietLighting considerationsSquare shapedTemperature controls
25Presentation: Room Layout Ensure there are enough seats for everyone.Make sure the area is clean.Set up your materials and visuals.Have extra supplies on hand.Set-up the room prior to training (if possible).Tables (moveable) and chairs (comfortable).The seating arrangements depend on the type of training and the goals you are trying to accomplish. Arrangements communicates nonverbally what kind of interaction you want to have with your audience.The higher you are in relationship to your audience as well as the number of objects you place between yourself and your audience, the more formal the atmosphere.
26Semi-Circle/U Arrangement Presentation: Room LayoutSemi-Circle/U ArrangementEncourages trainee discussion and allows trainees to be face-to face when the trainer is not talking
34Presentation: Time Stay within allotted time Practice and time Time each sectionBuild in cushion time for any audience involved activitiesDiscussionQuestionsHands on activity
35Presentation: Q & A When to take? Prepare During After Planning anticipated questionsPracticing answers
36Answering Questions Listen carefully Presentation: Q & AAnswering QuestionsListen carefullyAnswer accurately, concisely, clearly and admit when you don’t know the answerTough questions:remain calmtake time to thinkanswer honestlyask the audience for assistancedon’t ramble
37Oral Presentation Agenda PreparationPresentationPresentation tipsGeneralGroupPost-evaluationImmediate feedbackSpeaker controlLess work for the audience
38Presentation Tips Practice Techniques Speak conversationally Rehearse out loud on your feetMemorize key partsPractice with visualsCritique practice sessionSimulate actual situationTime yourself
39Presentation TipsSix MisconceptionsYou have to have a God-given talent to be a good speaker.It was a lot easier for “them”.Good speakers don’t have to work at it.The experienced people don’t get nervous.I could never be a good speaker.I’ve tried all that and it didn’t work.
40Overcoming Apprehension Presentation TipsOvercoming ApprehensionStart smallAdd on progressivelyStart with a message of importance to youKnow your material and PREPARE wellSpeak often, as much as you can, in all formsPractice and test
41Overcoming Apprehension (cont’d) Presentation TipsOvercoming Apprehension (cont’d)Know the territoryVisualize and assume successTalk one-to-one with friendly facesFocus on the message, not what the audience might be thinking of youPerform activities that reduce inhibitions about speakingGive yourself many reasons to feel good about yourselfRelaxation techniques: physical, mental, last minute, as you speak
42Let the Presentation Begin Presentation TipsLet the Presentation BeginStart with a bangStand straight and tall but relaxedMove around the roomDon’t speak until you have eye contact with the audienceShow enthusiasm - Be conscious of your voice tone and rate of speechStart on time, greet trainees, start with an icebreaker that is fail proof, outline expectations, go through agenda, code of conduct, breaks, logistics, etc.
43Let the Presentation Begin Presentation TipsLet the Presentation BeginThink: What do you want your audience to see?ConfidencePreparationFlowMake it look effortlessGroup Presentation Handout and Discuss
44Post-EvaluationMake mental notes throughout presentation of things to improve:Questions you couldn’t answerHard selling pointsAreas of difficulty for audienceNervous behaviorsAt a break or at the conclusion, indicate changes needed on notesAsk audience (when appropriate) for feedback
46ConclusionYou can be a good presenter; presentation skills can be learned.Careful preparation and practice cannot be faked.Know your purpose and plan to achieve it.Visual aids should enhance not distract from you.