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Oral Presentation Skills

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Presentation on theme: "Oral Presentation Skills"— Presentation transcript:

1 Oral Presentation Skills
Management 3200 Advantages of Oral Presentations: Immediate feedback Speaker control Less work for the audience

2 Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this lecture, you should:
Know how to plan and prepare an effective oral presentation utilizing the OABC principle. Feel confident in your ability to deliver a good oral presentation verbally and non-verbally. Be able to create and use visual aids to enhance verbal message.

3 Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this lecture, you should:
Understand how to set-up a room to facilitate the desired learning environment. Feel comfortable facilitating a question and answer session. Know how to make a group presentation more effective. Be able to evaluate your presentation.

4 Oral Presentation Agenda
Preparation Planning OABC Presentation Voice Non-verbal communication Visual aids Room layout Immediate feedback Speaker control Less work for the audience

5 Oral Presentation Agenda (cont’d)
Time Question & answer session Presentation tips General Group Post-evaluation Q & A Conclusion Immediate feedback Speaker control Less work for the audience

6 Preparation: Planning
Create an objective to achieve purpose Analyze audience Plan timing Consider delivery methods Planning Objective/purpose (tell/sell, join/consult, explaining, motivating,inspiring) Purpose provides a criterion by which to judge the success of your presentation. Analyze audience – preoccupation – preexisting thoughts, and feelings about presenter and material. You must deal with them as they are. Consider titles, functions, decision maker, values, attitudes, what persuades them, point of view, etc.

7 Delivery Methods Memorized Manuscript/Reading
Preparation: Planning Delivery Methods Memorized Manuscript/Reading Extemporaneous/Speaking from notes Impromptu Once delivery method is selected, you can begin to plan how your notes will look.

8 Preparation: Opening Must be creative/catch attention
Question (rhetorical or other) Appropriate humor Visual Interesting story Good/bad example Quote Hypothetical question Startling fact Now that we have discussed how to make general presentation decisions and plans, you now need to prepare the content of your presentation. Assuming the data has all been gathered, you must assemble the data in a logical format. The OABC format works well here. Opening – although the opening comes first, it is not written first. The agenda is usually written and the body developed prior to creating the opening and closing statements. In the opening, you need to get the audiences attention and prepare them for what is coming next. Possible openings include (read slide). You have seconds to decide if they like what they hear – you must connect – everything about you will be analyzed

9 Preparation: Opening BLUF – bottom-line up-front
Don’t apologize or make excuses Write it last Consider memorizing it

10 Preparation: Agenda Outline major content area
Group major points into seven items Consider having visible throughout Next comes the agenda. This is the outline of your presentation. This is an excellent tool to keep participants together. If people get off track, they can easily catch up by referring to your agenda. Agenda Outline major content elements “George Miller’s magical number = 7 plus or minus 2   consider having it visible throughout speech Ways to make it visible post on wall handout repeat use of slide of agenda use of “trackers” – upper or lower corner

11 Preparation: Body Develop each major area from agenda Provide support
Statistics, examples, testimonials, stories, analogies, explanations Something that will be remembered Choose logical sequence Build-in internal summaries/transitions You must provide adequate support for each agenda item. Body develop each of the major elements from the agenda choose a logical sequence o       criteria o       direct sequence o       indirect sequence o       chronology o       case/effect/solution o       order of importance o       elimination of alternatives  Things they will remember: interesting fact vivid mental image important to audience immediate application prior knowledge take written notes build in many internal summaries/transitions Possible sequences: problem and solution cause and effect theory and plan of action time and space order

12 Questioning Why Ask? Closed vs. Open-ended Overhead vs. Direct
Preparation: Body Questioning Why Ask? Closed vs. Open-ended Overhead vs. Direct Relay vs. Reverse Why ask? Check for understanding Invoke though Get an answer Overhead – question with no direct

13 Questioning Getting Responses Ice-breaker Ten-Second Rule
Preparation: Body Questioning Getting Responses Ice-breaker Ten-Second Rule Listening skills Movement Movement also helps maintain interest in other areas.

14 Preparation: Conclusion
Strong and clear Ensure purpose/objective is achieved Repeat major points/summarize Give conclusions and recommendations Give a challenge/action steps Conduct Q & A Plan a solid ending after Q & A Conclusions q       strong/ clear q       purpose o       repeat the major points o       give conclusions and recommendations o       give a challenge o       express hopes and feelings about message o       conduct and Q & A session q       Don’t end with Q & A – be sure to take charge and provide an additional strong closing statemen

15 Oral Presentation Agenda
Preparation Presentation Voice Non-verbal communication Visual aids Room layout Time Question & answer session Immediate feedback Speaker control Less work for the audience

16 Presentation: Voice Pitch - high or low frequency
Rate - speed at which you speak Volume - how loud you speak Tone - cumulative effect of voice Fillers Silence No one pitch, rate, or volume is correct. Variation is good. Select based on emphasis needed. Silence is a punctuation mark of oral communicaiton

17 Presentation: Non-verbal
Two main sources: face and upper limbs Eye Contact/Facial Expression Three-second conversations with audience members Upper limbs Use to supplement your spoken message 65-90% of communication is non-verbal Bad arm positions: fig-leaf, gunshot wound, parade rest, podium clutch, hand ringing, pockets, hips, arms folded

18 Presentation: Non-verbal
Appearance/Posture Not noticed Well groomed Slightly more formal than audience Movement Use floor space effectively Move toward audience naturally Don’t pace or wander Place weight evenly on both feet

19 Presentation: Visual Aids
Visuals that DISTRACT from the Presentation should not be used! Do NOT Use Visual Aids to: impress your audience with overly detailed tables avoid interaction with your audience make more than one main point present simple ideas that are easily stated verbally present irrelevant data Remember you are the most important visual aid.

20 Presentation: Visual Aids
Most common visual aids: Computer projected images Overhead projector Posters and flip charts Audiovisual Handouts Photographic slides Artifacts Visual aids must increase comprehension and enhance presenation

21 Proper Use of Visual Aids
Presentation: Visual Aids Proper Use of Visual Aids OVERHEAD/ SLIDES FLIP CHARTS AUDIO-VISUAL Charts/Newsprint/Posters 6 X 6 rule, 2-3 colors (alternate), Upper/lower case – 3” letters, one idea per chart Sticky notes, Pre-create, Post/tape, Tear, Write what is said Angle – 45 degree Line of sight Overheads/Slides 6 x 6 rule; 18 point or higher for overheads; slides, one idea per chart, transition from one visual to the next Contrasting colors, 2-3 colors max, Simplify, avoid centering text, check line breaks, proof, Test – always have back-up plan/supplies Tape/straight, Pen as pointer, Line of sight Lighted room if possible, Notes on frame Cover irrelevant data, Number them, One idea per visual Line of sight, avoid fancy fonts and small letters One slide per 2 minute discussion (minimum) Practice with equipment, have someone advance slides if possible Remember PP is not eh “Show” Audio visual - one foot trainee distance for every inch of screen size Play – turn on , Off - stop, Que up, Test volume General – do not talk to visual, remove visual when done with it, practice with visuals in room, don’t use irrelevant visuals, get rid of old news Let someone else run the slides. Practice to achieve flow. When to use handouts? Handout

22 Improper Layout of Power point Slide
Sounds Fly-ins Distracting backgrounds Loud Colors Wild pictures Strange fonts & letter junk Small fonts Too many bullets!

23 General Issues to Consider
Presentation: Visual Aids General Issues to Consider Portability Cost Ease of creation and updating Ease of use Visibility Professional image Availability Reliability Intrusiveness

24 Presentation: Room Layout
Eliminate distractions Windows, wall hangings, colors Carpeted with sound-absorbing walls and ceiling to ensure quiet Lighting considerations Square shaped Temperature controls

25 Presentation: Room Layout
Ensure there are enough seats for everyone. Make sure the area is clean. Set up your materials and visuals. Have extra supplies on hand. Set-up the room prior to training (if possible). Tables (moveable) and chairs (comfortable). The seating arrangements depend on the type of training and the goals you are trying to accomplish. Arrangements communicates nonverbally what kind of interaction you want to have with your audience. The higher you are in relationship to your audience as well as the number of objects you place between yourself and your audience, the more formal the atmosphere.

26 Semi-Circle/U Arrangement
Presentation: Room Layout Semi-Circle/U Arrangement Encourages trainee discussion and allows trainees to be face-to face when the trainer is not talking

27 Center Table Arrangement
Presentation: Room Layout Center Table Arrangement

28 Round-Table Arrangement
Presentation: Room Layout Round-Table Arrangement

29 Classroom Arrangement
Presentation: Room Layout Classroom Arrangement

30 Presentation: Room Layout
Chevron Arrangement

31 Half Round Arrangement
Presentation: Room Layout Half Round Arrangement

32 Without Tables Arrangement
Presentation: Room Layout Without Tables Arrangement

33 Without Tables Arrangement
Presentation: Room Layout Without Tables Arrangement Discuss Advantages/Disadvantages

34 Presentation: Time Stay within allotted time Practice and time
Time each section Build in cushion time for any audience involved activities Discussion Questions Hands on activity

35 Presentation: Q & A When to take? Prepare During After
Planning anticipated questions Practicing answers

36 Answering Questions Listen carefully
Presentation: Q & A Answering Questions Listen carefully Answer accurately, concisely, clearly and admit when you don’t know the answer Tough questions: remain calm take time to think answer honestly ask the audience for assistance don’t ramble

37 Oral Presentation Agenda
Preparation Presentation Presentation tips General Group Post-evaluation Immediate feedback Speaker control Less work for the audience

38 Presentation Tips Practice Techniques Speak conversationally
Rehearse out loud on your feet Memorize key parts Practice with visuals Critique practice session Simulate actual situation Time yourself

39 Presentation Tips Six Misconceptions You have to have a God-given talent to be a good speaker. It was a lot easier for “them”. Good speakers don’t have to work at it. The experienced people don’t get nervous. I could never be a good speaker. I’ve tried all that and it didn’t work.

40 Overcoming Apprehension
Presentation Tips Overcoming Apprehension Start small Add on progressively Start with a message of importance to you Know your material and PREPARE well Speak often, as much as you can, in all forms Practice and test

41 Overcoming Apprehension (cont’d)
Presentation Tips Overcoming Apprehension (cont’d) Know the territory Visualize and assume success Talk one-to-one with friendly faces Focus on the message, not what the audience might be thinking of you Perform activities that reduce inhibitions about speaking Give yourself many reasons to feel good about yourself Relaxation techniques: physical, mental, last minute, as you speak

42 Let the Presentation Begin
Presentation Tips Let the Presentation Begin Start with a bang Stand straight and tall but relaxed Move around the room Don’t speak until you have eye contact with the audience Show enthusiasm - Be conscious of your voice tone and rate of speech Start on time, greet trainees, start with an icebreaker that is fail proof, outline expectations, go through agenda, code of conduct, breaks, logistics, etc.

43 Let the Presentation Begin
Presentation Tips Let the Presentation Begin Think: What do you want your audience to see? Confidence Preparation Flow Make it look effortless Group Presentation Handout and Discuss

44 Post-Evaluation Make mental notes throughout presentation of things to improve: Questions you couldn’t answer Hard selling points Areas of difficulty for audience Nervous behaviors At a break or at the conclusion, indicate changes needed on notes Ask audience (when appropriate) for feedback

45 Question and Answer Session

46 Conclusion You can be a good presenter; presentation skills can be learned. Careful preparation and practice cannot be faked. Know your purpose and plan to achieve it. Visual aids should enhance not distract from you.

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