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SHAME MANAGEMENT AND PROBLEM RESOLUTION PRACTICE IN THE FRAMEWORK OF REINTEGRATIVE SHAMING THEORY: Observations in Two Cultures Helene Hwayeon Shin Regulatory.

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Presentation on theme: "SHAME MANAGEMENT AND PROBLEM RESOLUTION PRACTICE IN THE FRAMEWORK OF REINTEGRATIVE SHAMING THEORY: Observations in Two Cultures Helene Hwayeon Shin Regulatory."— Presentation transcript:

1 SHAME MANAGEMENT AND PROBLEM RESOLUTION PRACTICE IN THE FRAMEWORK OF REINTEGRATIVE SHAMING THEORY: Observations in Two Cultures Helene Hwayeon Shin Regulatory Institutions Network Australian National University

2 Life at School Project (http://crj.anu.edu.au/school.html ) An on-going project of Centre for Restorative Justice at ANU An on-going project of Centre for Restorative Justice at ANU Objectives of the Project To explore social and psychological determinants of the capacity to admit to wrongdoing without excessive blame or anger towards others (see Braithwaite, Braithwaite) To explore social and psychological determinants of the capacity to admit to wrongdoing without excessive blame or anger towards others (see Braithwaite, Braithwaite) To understand consequences of poor shame management (see Ahmed, Harris) To understand consequences of poor shame management (see Ahmed, Harris) To suggest the creation of safe spaces for adaptive management of shame (see Ahmed, Shin) To suggest the creation of safe spaces for adaptive management of shame (see Ahmed, Shin)

3 Why Shame Management? Shame as a master emotion Shame as a master emotion The negative consequences of unresolved shame (e.g., violence, hostility & depression) The negative consequences of unresolved shame (e.g., violence, hostility & depression) Self-regulatory effect of shame Self-regulatory effect of shame Process of moral learning Process of moral learning Need to promote adaptive and healthy management of shame Need to promote adaptive and healthy management of shame Conceptualization of safe spaces at work (Braithwaite & Braithwaite, 2001) Conceptualization of safe spaces at work (Braithwaite & Braithwaite, 2001)

4 Styles of Shame Management - I (Ahmed, 2001) Shame Acknowledgement Shame Acknowledgement 1) Feeling shame 2) Taking responsibility over wrongdoing 3) Making amends

5 Styles of Shame Management – II (Ahmed, 2001) Shame Displacement Shame Displacement 1) Externalising blame 2) Feeling displaced anger 3) Feeling retaliation

6 Styles of Shame Management – III (Nathanson, 1992) Withdrawal Withdrawal 1) Feeling like hiding 2) Physical and psychological withdrawal from the scene 3) (* Embarrassment – Exposure, Harris, 2001 )

7 Life at School: Teachers’ Views and Expectation Surveyed secondary school teachers in Australia and Korea (total: 665) about their experiences in the workplace in relation to workmates, students and the authority, the educational community as a whole Surveyed secondary school teachers in Australia and Korea (total: 665) about their experiences in the workplace in relation to workmates, students and the authority, the educational community as a whole The specific question of the study: How do teachers manage shame? How do teachers manage shame? Will reintegrative shaming theory predict adaptive management of shame in the workplace? Will reintegrative shaming theory predict adaptive management of shame in the workplace?

8 Workplace Bullying: An Increasing Phenomenon Global phenomenon Global phenomenon Emotional disorder, depression, absenteeism, high staff turnover, lost production Emotional disorder, depression, absenteeism, high staff turnover, lost production Cost Australia between 6 billion and 13 billion Cost Australia between 6 billion and 13 billion QLD, only state follows up with legislation QLD, only state follows up with legislation Teachers Teachers 25 to 33 % are bullied in most OECD countries 25 to 33 % are bullied in most OECD countries The largest group of callers to the Bullying Advice Line (UK) The largest group of callers to the Bullying Advice Line (UK)

9 A Bullying Scenario A new teacher (A) joins you in the staff room and eagerly asks you questions about the school. You initially answer superficially, then you stare contemptuously, finally you stand up and say, “Didn’t you do any preparation for this job?” Then you realize that the other teachers in the staff room are listening and watching you. A new teacher (A) joins you in the staff room and eagerly asks you questions about the school. You initially answer superficially, then you stare contemptuously, finally you stand up and say, “Didn’t you do any preparation for this job?” Then you realize that the other teachers in the staff room are listening and watching you.

10 Reintegrative Shaming Theory (Braithwaite, 1989) Shaming Shaming a refresher course for failed conscience a refresher course for failed conscience a moral learning process to crystallise a moral learning process to crystallise values of community values of community Need to decertify the wrongdoer as deviant Need to decertify the wrongdoer as deviant not to create a class of outcasts not to create a class of outcasts Bring the wrongdoer back to the community Bring the wrongdoer back to the community to restore his dignity and relationships in the to restore his dignity and relationships in the community community

11 Reintegrative Shaming Theory (Braithwaite, 1989) Shaming Shaming disapproving bullying behaviour disapproving bullying behaviour Need to decertify the wrongdoer as deviant Need to decertify the wrongdoer as deviant reintegrating bully into the reintegrating bully into the relationships relationships Bring the wrongdoer back to the community Bring the wrongdoer back to the community reintegrative approach to problem reintegrative approach to problem resolution in the workplace resolution in the workplace

12 Social Discipline Window High Highpunitiveauthoritarianstigmatizingrestorativecollaborativereintegrative neglectfulindifferentpassivepermissivetherapeuticprotective Control LowSuppor t High

13 Problem Resolution Practice and Reintegrative Shaming Theory tolerant and understanding (low disapproval - high reintegration ) neglectful (low disapproval - low reintegration) reintegrative (high disapproval - high reintegration) stigmatizing (high disapproval - low reintegration) High High Disap proval Low ReintegrationHigh

14 Hypotheses Reintegrative practice would increase adaptive management of shame, that is: Reintegrative practice would increase adaptive management of shame, that is: 1) shame would be acknowledged with desire to make amends, 2) shame would be dissolved safely without displacing anger onto others, 3) withdrawal would not be used to avoid the acknowledgement of wrongdoing.

15 Findings Percentage of Four Practices Prevalent Comparing Australian and Korean Workplace Problem resolution Practice reintegrativetolerant stigmatizing neglect Percent GROUP Australians Koreans

16 Findings (Con.) T he Effect of Four Practices in Predicting Shame Management (Australia) tolerant and understanding neglectful reintegrativestigmatizing High High Disap proval Low Reintegration High A D A A

17 Findings (Con.) T he Effect of Four Practices in Predicting Shame Management (Korea) tolerant and understanding neglectful reintegrativestigmatizing High High Disap proval Low Reintegration High A D W

18 Summary of Findings Indeed, problem resolution practice in the workplace had effects on how shame was managed. Indeed, problem resolution practice in the workplace had effects on how shame was managed. In the Australian sample, reintegrative shaming theory was supported. In the Australian sample, reintegrative shaming theory was supported. In the Korean sample, culturally specific results were found. In the Korean sample, culturally specific results were found. In spite of complexity in some of the findings, we believe that feeling socially reintegrated is an important factor that enables bullies, victims, and onlookers to come to terms (the necessity of safe spaces). In spite of complexity in some of the findings, we believe that feeling socially reintegrated is an important factor that enables bullies, victims, and onlookers to come to terms (the necessity of safe spaces).

19 Love your neighbour as yourself (Luke 10:27)

20 Thanks! and Questions?


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