Presentation on theme: "PSPH 228 Assessment in K-12 Science Education Fall 2010 Dr. RUSSELL G. WRIGHT 301-806-7252."— Presentation transcript:
PSPH 228 Assessment in K-12 Science Education Fall 2010 Dr. RUSSELL G. WRIGHT
2 Agenda Introductions Pretest Syllabus and Course Schedule Textbook Distribution To Know vs. To Understand (Activity) Can We Believe Our Eyes? (Video) What do you understand well? How do you know you understand it?
3 Introductions Russ Wright Science Teacher Retired from MCPS Program Coordinator The George Washington University Award-Winning Author Event-Based Science Grading and Motivation Guru Success for All: The Median is the Key
5 Textbooks Understanding by Design Educative Assessment Assessment, Equity, and Opportunity to Learn … Benchmarks for Science Literacy
6 To Know vs. To Understand Follow the directions on To Know vs. To Understand
7 Can We Believe Our Eyes? Before we see the video, I want you to draw a diagram showing how you could light a bulb with one battery and one wire.
8 Can We Believe Our Eyes? Watch video…
9 Can We Believe Our Eyes? Work in pairs to summarize any lessons you have learned from watching this video.
10 What do you really understand? There must be at least one thing that you really understand. Select one concept or skill (besides lighting a light bulb) that you understand well…
11 What do you really understand? How do you know that you really understand it?
12 Homework Read Chapter 2 in Understanding by Design Go to the Annenberg Foundation Web Site and Watch Workshop 1: You will have to register, but the site is free.
13 Understanding Up until now we assumed that we all shared a common understanding of the meaning of the word understanding. But what are you really aiming for when your goal is understanding?
14 Understanding have a critical grasp of have thorough knowledge of internalize knowledge of grasp the essence of My students will… really understand
15 Understanding My students will… What does understanding really mean?
16 Understanding Teachers want their students to understand the concepts they are teaching. …a slippery goal without definitions. Also, are there different levels of understanding?
Benjamin Bloom his Taxonomy of Educational Objectives was …an attempt to classify different degrees of understanding. 17
18 Bloom’s Contributions Bloom’s Taxonomy Research on early childhood; testified on behalf of Head Start International influence Mastery learning Gifted students; all students have innate potential
19 Bloom’s Biography Born 1913, in Lansford, PA BA & MS in 1935 from Penn State University PhD in 1942 from University of Chicago Lived in Chicago at time of death in 1999
20 Career Beginnings Staff member of Board of Examinations at the University of Chicago, Under mentorship of Ralph W. Tyler Growing interest in organizing educational objectives by cognitive complexity Became University Examiner in 1943 (In this position, he developed tests to determine if undergraduates had mastered material necessary for them to receive their bachelor’s degrees.)
21 Developing the Taxonomy Bloom attended the American Psychological Association convention in 1948… His discussions with other university examiners lead to the utility of a hierarchical classification system for various educational goals
22 Developing the Taxonomy They wanted to: clarify language about educational objectives have convenient system for describing test items, exam techniques, and instruments for assessment be able to compare and study educational programs show a real order among educational objectives
23 Developing the Taxonomy Continued to meet after convention Defined three “domains” or classifications for educational objectives: Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Formed committees of study for each
24 The Cognitive Domain 1956 book, Bloom as editor with Engelhart, Furst, Hill + Krathwohl Focus on students’ thought processes Taxonomy: Hierarchical according to cognitive levels of difficulty Each level encompasses, builds on and is more difficult than that at the levels below it
25 The Cognitive Domain There are three low-level orders: Knowledge Recognition/recall of information Remember just as learned Comprehension Organize and arrange information Rephrase (describe in own words) Application Apply information to find answer to problem Apply rule or process to new situation
26 The Cognitive Domain There are three higher-level orders: Analysis Think critically, in depth; no rule of thought Identify reasons, uncover evidence, make conclusions Synthesis Perform original and creative thinking Produce new material, predict, problem-solve Evaluation Judge merit, offer an opinion, assess Not careless critique: according to a standard
27 The Cognitive Domain Source:
28 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the Classroom How do you use Bloom’s Taxonomy? Classify educational objectives Plan to help students achieve higher levels of mastery Structure questioning and assessments
29 Critizing Bloom’s Taxonomy Synthesis and evaluation are one and the same Synthesis and evaluation should be switched No past history or context Some knowledge is harder to retain; some knowledge is harder to restate in ways that prove comprehension
30 A New Taxonomy Source:
31 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the Classroom Practicing Levels of the Cognitive Domain Remembering: Ask a classmate a question assessing their memory of Bloom.
32 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the Classroom Understand: Ask a classmate a question assessing their understanding of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
33 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the Classroom Application: What kind of homework might I give to test your ability to apply what you’ve learned today about Bloom’s Taxonomy?
34 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the Classroom Analysis: Write a question that will require a classmate to analyze Bloom’s Taxonomy ?
35 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the Classroom Evaluation: Based on your knowledge and experience, would you recommend Bloom’s Taxonomy to other teachers? Why or why not?
36 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the Classroom Creating: Any ideas on how to ask a class to create a product related to Bloom’s Taxonomy?
37 Benchmark Authors Describe the Problem On page 312 of Benchmarks for Science Literacy its authors describe the problem they faced in framing benchmarks for science teaching and assessing… (see page 36 of UBD)
38 Understanding Understanding and Apparent Understanding What would you find if you dug a hole in the earth? John Dewey (See page 48 of Understanding by Design.) If students have trouble answering this question, is it the wrong question?
39 Understanding What evidence of understanding is adequate? Is knowing facts and doing well on a test of knowledge the same thing as understanding?
40 Understanding Apparent Understanding Delivery of the right word, the right definition, the correct formula. …using learning in new ways. ( Bloom’s Taxonomy) …the ability to think and act flexibly with what one knows. (David Perkins) Real Understanding
41 Understanding is About Transfer When we understand something we can use it in new settings. We can take what we know and use it in numerous ways! Understanding is about Transfer!
42 Understanding is Not About Inert Ideas! What are inert ideas? (p. 41)
43 To Know vs. To Understand
44 Misunderstanding Provides Insight Misunderstanding Is Not Ignorance Misunderstandings are ideas that are mapped on plausible but incorrect frameworks. It takes a fair amount of knowledge to misunderstand something. Students often think that experimental error happens because of avoidable mistakes in procedure and/or measurement.
45 Misunderstanding Provides Insight Howard Gardner (1991) sums up the research on misconceptions: Read quote on page 52 of Understanding by Design.
46 Misunderstanding Provides Insight Why is it colder in the winter and warmer in the summer?
47 Misunderstanding Resist Change Audrey Champagne State University of New York, Albany Difficulty in changing students’ misconceptions.
48 Misunderstanding Provides Insight Conventional testing reveals the problem: Most US teenagers study and pass Algebra 1. Yet, NAEP results show that only 5 percent of our students perform at a proficient level on tasks that require higher- order use of Algebra 1 knowledge (NAEP, 1988).
49 Six Facets of Understanding 1.Explanation 2.Interpretation 3.Application 4.Perspective 5.Empathy 6.Self Knowledge
50 Six Facets of Understanding Group Activity – Fellows will work together in small groups (3 or 4) to develop 10 – 15 minute presentations on one of the six facets of understanding. Groups will present their findings using PowerPoint or other visual aid. Each group will provide a handout describing one facet of understanding, with examples, and 2 exam questions. Groups will divide the task into explicit responsibilities for each person in the group.
51 Six Facets of Understanding
52 Six Facets of Understanding Group Presentations – Groups will have 10 – 15 minutes to present their facet of understanding. At the end of each presentation the audience will complete the appropriate section of the Facets of Understanding chart.