Presentation on theme: "An Outline Of Direct Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Outline Of Direct Instruction The Teaching ActAn Outline Of Direct Instruction
2 Experience & Learning We Tend To Remember 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear30% of what we see50% of what we hear & see70% of what we say90% of what we say & do
3 Outline Objectives Standards Anticipatory Set Teaching InputModelingCheck For UnderstandingGuided Practice/MonitoringClosureIndependent Practice
4 1. Teaching Objectives Teacher should ask their self What should the student be able toDoUnderstand, and/orCare about as a result of the teaching?
5 2. Standards Of Performance The teacher needs to know what standards of performance are to be expected and when pupils will be held accountable for what is expectedStudents should be informed about the standards of performance.
6 2. Standards Of Performance An explanation ofThe type of lesson to be presentedProcedures to be followedBehavioral expectations related to the lessonWhat the students are expected to doWhat knowledge or skills are to be demonstrated and in what manner
7 3. Anticipatory SetSometimes called a "hook" to grab the student's attentionActions and statements to relate the experiences of the students to the objectives of the lesson to put students into a receptive frame of mind.
8 3. Anticipatory Set The purpose is to: Focus student attention on the lessonCreate an organized framework for the ideas, principles, or informationExtend the understanding and the application of abstract ideas through the use of example or analogy
9 3. Anticipatory Set Example Topic = Supply & Demand 10th and 11th grade Econ class“By a show of hands, how many of you care how high the price of a Big Mac Cost”View the hands“Today we are going to talk about some of the key factors that determine the cost of things such as Big Macs, cars, gas, and movie tickets”A question makes a good hookHopefully these things “relate” to the students
10 4. Teaching/Presentation Includes Input, Modeling, and Checking for understandingInputThe teacher provides information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through diverse instructional delivery strategiesLectureDemonstrationCase studies and scenariosEtc…
11 4. Teaching/Presentation ModelingThe teacher models examples of what is expected as an end product of their workStudents are taken to the application level (problem-solving, comparison, summarizing, etc.)In our “Supply & Demand” lesson, the teacher may review a case study and make predictions
12 4. Teaching/Presentation Checking for UnderstandingDetermination of whether students have "got it" before proceedingTeacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practiceIf there is any doubt--the concept/skill should be re-taught before practice beginsRequires constant monitoring—asking questions, reading non-verbal cues (i.e. facial expressions), etc. . .
13 4. Teaching/Presentation Questioning strategiesAsking questions that go beyond recall to probe for the higher levels of understanding...to ensure memory network binding and transferBloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a structure for questioning that is hierarchical and cumulative and provides guidance to the teacher in structuring questions at the level of proximal developmentQuestions progress from the lowest to the highest of the six levels of the cognitive domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.Most Teachers only asks questions at the knowledge level!
14 4. Teaching/Presentation To keep students from conditioning their selves into not listening and asking for the question to be repeated when called onQuestioning TechniqueGet their attention, then ask the questionAsk the question before designating the person to answer (Do not look at the person you are going to ask)Do not repeat or rephrase the student's response. You may ask for agreement by the class or others to respond. Explain why the answer is good (offer positive reinforcement)
15 4. Teaching/Presentation Ask the question then wait for 50% of hands [or "bright eyes," knowing looks]. Do not be afraid of a little quite space in timeNever ask a question of a student who you know cannot answer. Never try to embarrass a studentIf the student is confused or can not answer, calmly repeat the same question or give a direct clue. Try to lead the student to the correct answer.Some adolescents will never forgive you!
16 5. Guided PracticeOpportunity for students to demonstrate grasp of the new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teacher's direct supervisionTeacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needed(Offer positive reinforcement when possible)
17 6. Independent PracticeProvide independent practice on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgottenHome workGroup workIndividual work in class
18 6. Independent PracticeShould provide for decontextualization (enough different contexts) so that the skill/concept may be applied to any relevant situation...not only the context in which it was originally learnedThe failure to do this is responsible for most student failure to be able to apply something learned
19 7. ClosureActions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson to a conclusionUsed to help students bring things together in their own minds and make sense out of what has just been taught
20 7. Closure Closure is used To cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lessonTo help organize student learningTo help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc.To reinforce the major points to be learned...To help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possibilities for cues for retrieval
21 7. ClosureThe act ofReviewing and clarifying the key points of a lessonTying them together into a coherent wholeEnsuring their utility in application by securing them in the student's conceptual network
22 Numbers 6 & 7Sometimes Independent Practice will be administered before closureClass workSometimes Independent Practice will be administered after closureHomework
23 Summary You told them what you were going to tell them with set You tell them with presentationYou demonstrate what you want them to do with modelingYou see if they understand what you've told them with checking for understanding, andYou tell them what you've told them by tying it all together with closure