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An Outline Of Direct Instruction

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Presentation on theme: "An Outline Of Direct Instruction"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Outline Of Direct Instruction
The Teaching Act An Outline Of Direct Instruction

2 Experience & Learning We Tend To Remember 10% of what we read
20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we hear & see 70% of what we say 90% of what we say & do

3 Outline Objectives Standards Anticipatory Set Teaching
Input Modeling Check For Understanding Guided Practice/Monitoring Closure Independent Practice

4 1. Teaching Objectives Teacher should ask their self
What should the student be able to Do Understand, and/or Care about as a result of the teaching?

5 2. Standards Of Performance
The teacher needs to know what standards of performance are to be expected and when pupils will be held accountable for what is expected Students should be informed about the standards of performance.

6 2. Standards Of Performance
An explanation of The type of lesson to be presented Procedures to be followed Behavioral expectations related to the lesson What the students are expected to do What knowledge or skills are to be demonstrated and in what manner

7 3. Anticipatory Set Sometimes called a "hook" to grab the student's attention Actions and statements to relate the experiences of the students to the objectives of the lesson to put students into a receptive frame of mind.

8 3. Anticipatory Set The purpose is to:
Focus student attention on the lesson Create an organized framework for the ideas, principles, or information Extend the understanding and the application of abstract ideas through the use of example or analogy

9 3. Anticipatory Set Example Topic = Supply & Demand
10th and 11th grade Econ class “By a show of hands, how many of you care how high the price of a Big Mac Cost” View the hands “Today we are going to talk about some of the key factors that determine the cost of things such as Big Macs, cars, gas, and movie tickets” A question makes a good hook Hopefully these things “relate” to the students

10 4. Teaching/Presentation
Includes Input, Modeling, and Checking for understanding Input The teacher provides information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through diverse instructional delivery strategies Lecture Demonstration Case studies and scenarios Etc…

11 4. Teaching/Presentation
Modeling The teacher models examples of what is expected as an end product of their work Students are taken to the application level (problem-solving, comparison, summarizing, etc.) In our “Supply & Demand” lesson, the teacher may review a case study and make predictions

12 4. Teaching/Presentation
Checking for Understanding Determination of whether students have "got it" before proceeding Teacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practice If there is any doubt--the concept/skill should be re-taught before practice begins Requires constant monitoring—asking questions, reading non-verbal cues (i.e. facial expressions), etc. . .

13 4. Teaching/Presentation
Questioning strategies Asking questions that go beyond recall to probe for the higher levels of ensure memory network binding and transfer Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a structure for questioning that is hierarchical and cumulative and provides guidance to the teacher in structuring questions at the level of proximal development Questions progress from the lowest to the highest of the six levels of the cognitive domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Most Teachers only asks questions at the knowledge level!

14 4. Teaching/Presentation
To keep students from conditioning their selves into not listening and asking for the question to be repeated when called on Questioning Technique Get their attention, then ask the question Ask the question before designating the person to answer (Do not look at the person you are going to ask) Do not repeat or rephrase the student's response. You may ask for agreement by the class or others to respond. Explain why the answer is good (offer positive reinforcement)

15 4. Teaching/Presentation
Ask the question then wait for 50% of hands [or "bright eyes," knowing looks]. Do not be afraid of a little quite space in time Never ask a question of a student who you know cannot answer. Never try to embarrass a student If the student is confused or can not answer, calmly repeat the same question or give a direct clue. Try to lead the student to the correct answer. Some adolescents will never forgive you!

16 5. Guided Practice Opportunity for students to demonstrate grasp of the new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teacher's direct supervision Teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needed (Offer positive reinforcement when possible)

17 6. Independent Practice Provide independent practice on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten Home work Group work Individual work in class

18 6. Independent Practice Should provide for decontextualization (enough different contexts) so that the skill/concept may be applied to any relevant situation...not only the context in which it was originally learned The failure to do this is responsible for most student failure to be able to apply something learned

19 7. Closure Actions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson to a conclusion Used to help students bring things together in their own minds and make sense out of what has just been taught

20 7. Closure Closure is used
To cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson To help organize student learning To help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc. To reinforce the major points to be learned...To help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possibilities for cues for retrieval

21 7. Closure The act of Reviewing and clarifying the key points of a lesson Tying them together into a coherent whole Ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the student's conceptual network

22 Numbers 6 & 7 Sometimes Independent Practice will be administered before closure Class work Sometimes Independent Practice will be administered after closure Homework

23 Summary You told them what you were going to tell them with set
You tell them with presentation You demonstrate what you want them to do with modeling You see if they understand what you've told them with checking for understanding, and You tell them what you've told them by tying it all together with closure

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