Presentation on theme: "Diversity Differentiated Instruction Cooperative Learning TPR TPRS Learning Styles Proficiency 3 Modes of Communication Standards Multiple Intelligences."— Presentation transcript:
Diversity Differentiated Instruction Cooperative Learning TPR TPRS Learning Styles Proficiency 3 Modes of Communication Standards Multiple Intelligences Graduation Requirements Assessment Technology Block Schedules Parents Contextualized Instruction Higher order thinking Blooms Taxonomies Backward Design Evidence of Learning SLA Vocabulary Functions
Objectives: Gain some knowledge of Language Learning Strategies (LLS) Re-Activate knowledge of Learning Styles Learn 20 LL Strategies Link LLS to Instruction Apply LLS in developing lessons Resource: Sailing the 5 Cs with Learning Strategies
Language Learning Strategies (LLS) Why teach them? LLS instruction focuses on making the students more active learners by teaching them how to learn and how to use what they have learned, and be more successful second language learners.
What are learner strategies for? for enhancing learning. for performing specified tasks. for solving specific problems. for compensating for a deficit in learning. for making learning easier, faster, more enjoyable.
Distinct from Learning Styles learner's "natural, habitual, and preferred way(s) of absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and skills" (Reid, 1995, p. viii)
STYLE INVENTORY Take 5 minutes to fill out the survey.
Language Learning Strategies “specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques that students (often intentionally) use to improve their progress in developing L2 skills. These strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language. Strategies are tools for the self- directed involvement necessary for developing communicative ability.” (Oxford, 1992/1993, p. 18)
National Standards Students who use learning strategies effectively begin to see themselves as language learners and take on more responsibility for their own learning. Learning strategies benefit all students since even those who use some strategies effectively can be taught additional ones. (Standards, p )
Take 2 minutes to think about some strategies you personally use. Then talk with your table group for 5 minutes. When you learned your L2, what strategies did you use?
Some strategies Highlighting Listening to media Peer tutors Study groups Color Coding Self Talk Visual imagery Graphic organizers Draw pictures Physical gestures Flashcards Mnemonic devices Note taking Paired items
Why Use Strategies? learner-centered and allow learners to become more self-directed expand your role as the language teacher are problem-oriented involve many aspects, not just the cognitive can be taught are flexible are influenced by a variety of factors (Oxford, 1990, p. 9)
Why are these important? “… they are tools for active, self-directed involvement, which is essential for developing communicative competence” (Oxford, 1990) “…help students become better language learners.” Graham (1997)
Students are already using strategies to learn language and to learn in other subjects. However, many of them are not conscious of the techniques they are using. By explicitly identifying learning strategies as learners use them, you can empower learners to use these strategies more effectively and in a wider context. Strategies they use…
How Teachers Can Help Identify students’ learning styles and current strategies through surveys, interviews, etc. Help students discern the most relevant LLS for their learning style, tasks, and goals Aid students in systematically using them
Building Students’ Repertoire Metacognitive - reflecting upon your learning Organize/Plan Your Own Learning Manage Your Own Learning Monitor Your Own Learning Evaluate Your Own Learning Task-Based - use their own resources to learn most effectively Strategies That Use What You Know Strategies That Use Your Imagination Strategies That Use Your Organizational Skills Strategies That Use a Variety of Resources
Metacognitive Strategies Organize/Plan Plan the task or content sequence. Set goals. Plan how to accomplish the task. Manage your own learning Determine how you learn best. Arrange conditions that help you learn. Seek opportunities for practice. Focus your attention on the task.
Metacognitive Strategies Monitor While working on a task: Check your progress on the task. Check your comprehension as you use the language. Are you understanding? Check your production as you use the language. Are you making sense? Evaluate After completing a task: Assess how well you have accomplished the learning task. Assess how well you have applied the strategies. Decide how effective the strategies were in helping you accomplish the task.
Task-Based: Use What you Know Use Background Knowledge Think about and use what you already know to help you do the task. Make associations. Make Inferences Use context and what you know to figure out meaning. Make Predictions Anticipate information to come. Make logical guesses about what will happen. Personalize Relate new concepts to your own life, that is, to your experiences, knowledge, beliefs and feelings.
Sample Anticipation Chart
Task-Based: Use What you Know Transfer and/or Use Cognates Apply your linguistic knowledge of other languages (including your native language) to the target language. Recognize cognates. Substitute or Paraphrase Think of a similar word or descriptive phrase for words you do not know in the target language.
Task-Based: Use your Imagination Use Imagery Use or create an image to understand and/or represent information. Use Real Objects/Role Play Act out and/or imagine yourself in different roles in the target language. Manipulate real objects as you use the target language.
Task-Based: Use your Organizational Skills Find/Apply Patterns Apply a rule. Make a rule. Sound out and apply letter/sound rules. Group Classify Relate or categorize words or ideas according to attributes. Use Graphic Organizers Take Notes Use or create visual representations (such as Venn diagrams, timelines, and charts) of important relationships between concepts. Write down important words and ideas.
Task-Based: Use your Organizational Skills Summarize Create a mental, oral, or written summary of information. Use Selective Attention Focus on specific information, structures, key words, phrases,or ideas.
Task-Based: Use a Variety of Resources Access Information Sources Use the dictionary, the Internet, and other reference materials. Follow a model. Ask questions. Cooperate Work with others to complete tasks, build confidence, and give and receive feedback. Talk Yourself Through It (Self Talk) Use your inner resources. Reduce your anxiety by reminding yourself of your progress, the resources you have available, and your goals.
Integrating LLS with Instruction Effective strategies instruction is not an "add-on" or a separate content area; rather, strategies instruction is used to support language learning and to accomplish authentic, meaningful language tasks. Although some initial explanations are needed, most strategies instruction should occur while you are working on language tasks.
LLS and the 3 Modes Interpersonal Interpretive Presentational & Culture!
Interpersonal Mode Sample ActivityStrategy Talk with a partner about things you do at home. Cooperate: Work together to keep the conversation going. When you are trying to think of a word, let your partner suggest vocabulary you can use. If your partner has trouble, help by offering what you know how to say. Helping each other learn will make the process more fun. Use new vocabulary related to school subjects to interview a classmate about likes and dislikes. Look at the vocabulary list for cognates, words that are similar to the English names of school subjects. Check your understanding of the words with the glossary and ask your classmate about the classes they like or dislike. Notice how the words may have a different stress or pronunciation in the foreign language, so you won’t pronounce them the same way as in English.
Interpretive Mode Sample ActivityStrategy Listen to a dialogue about making a date. Use what you know about dating to help you understand the dialogue. For example, there are different ways to ask if someone is free on a certain date in English. How do speakers of your foreign language handle the situation? Notice how the speakers make a request and respond to a request for a date Read a travel brochure. Answer questions about the place in the brochure. Begin reading the brochure and stop periodically to see if you are understanding what you are reading. Stop to monitor your progress frequently. If you don’t understand, access resources such as the glossary, your notes, or your dictionary.
Presentational Mode Sample ActivityStrategy Create and perform a skit about ordering in a French restaurant. Stop for a moment to encourage yourself. Tell yourself that you can do this assignment because you have good strategies for language learning. You can use cooperating as you work with a classmate to plan the skit. You can use what you know as you remember phrases in French to talk about food, drinks, and money. You can monitor as you practice the skit to check if you can understand the lines you and your classmate write. When problems come up, you can access resources to get the help you need.
Culture: Practices/Perspectives Sample ActivityStrategy After listening to a dialogue about a wedding in Mexico, list the practices you learned about and talk about what this tells you Mexican culture. As you listen to the description of the wedding, create an image of the ceremony in your mind. Read a magazine article about Austrian sports and write a summary about what types of sports they play in Austria. Use the headline, photo, caption, and key words to infer what the article will focus on. As you read, check to see if what you inferred matches information in the article.
Culture: Products/Perspectives Sample ActivityStrategy Write a description of a French work of art. Discuss why this painting was influential to French culture. Search the Web for French works of art. Museum websites are frequently valuable sources of information about art. Read a magazine article about current fashion trends in Paris. Before reading, brainstorm what you already know about fashion and French fashion in particular. For example, what clothing names do you know in French? How about colors? Apply what you know to help you understand the article.
Resources stions.html DVC Learning Style Survey for College has a good introduction, four categories of styles (visual/verbal; visual nonverbal; tactile/kinesthetic; auditory/verbal), and a self- assessment web-based tool. Results/scores are based upon 32 questions. stions.html Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire: (Felder/Silverman) introduction, learning preferences on four dimensions (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global); and a self-assessment instrument self-scored. Results/scores are based upon 44 questions.
Your Task (between now & 11:00) Form groups of 3 by language and level Define language lesson objectives to include a real-life cultural/social situation Decide what strategies students will be able to use by the end of the lesson and self-evaluate. List strategies objectives.
Continued…. List materials. Create samples of any worksheets/graphic organizers that will be needed. Sequence of Activities: Presentation: At least one step-by-step activity that describes how you will model your expectations and learning strategies. Practice: in which students use the language to achieve the communicative objectives using strategies you model/suggest. Debriefing/Self Evaluation: students reflect and share their strategies for learning.