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U1 LE6: For Further Study Metabolic Managers Enzymes.

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1 U1 LE6: For Further Study Metabolic Managers Enzymes

2 1. Enzymes are proteins They are built by organisms from the nutrients or biomolecules they take in Enzymes frequently end with the suffix “-ase” amylase, lactase, cellulase, sucrase

3 Each lock requires it’s own key Every chemical reaction has it’s own enzyme

4 2. Every chemical reaction requires its own enzyme Amylase - breaks down starch Sucrase – breaks down sucrose Lactase – breaks down lactose Lipase – breaks down fats Polymerase – Builds nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) from nucleotides Helicase – Unwinds the DNA strand

5 Is this enzyme performing catabolism or anabolism?

6 Reactant + Reactant > Product Enzyme

7 3. Enzymes have specific shapes Enzymes can fold into different shapes based on the number of amino acids, the type of amino acids, the sequence of amino acids. Ex. Analogy 26 letters of the alphabet20 amino acids Form different wordsForm different proteins Ex. Ship vs. shipmate – different number and type Ex. Ship vs. Hips – different sequence

8 Enzymes have specific shapes Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide lactose into glucose and galactose Only the molecule of lactose will fit into this enzyme Catabolic or Anabolic reaction? chemicalconnection.org.uk

9 Enzymes shapes can be very complex.. this is a diagram of lactase folded

10 4. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of reactions Enzymes speed up reactions by a million times It would take 50 years to digest one meal without enzymes Life could not exist without enzymes, because metabolism would come to a screeching halt

11 5. Enzymes speed up reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed Enzymes speed up reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed to start the reaction student.ccbcmd.edu

12 6. Enzymes are not used up or changed in a reaction

13 7A. Enzyme Destruction: Temperature can change it’s shape or denature the enzyme High temperatures Destroy the shape of enzymes – they can’t do their job Metabolic process cannot occur This is why heat stroke can kill you

14 Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Reaction Rate The rate of enzyme catalyzed reactions will increase with increasing temperature (due to an increase of molecule collisions) until an optimum temperature is reached. Above the optimum temperature the enzyme changes shape and is denatured (destroyed). CF

15 7B. Enzyme Destruction: pH can change it’s shape or denature the enzyme Blood pH 7 – 7.45 Stomach pH 1-4 Intestine pH 8 Mouth pH An improper pH can destroy enzymes Enzymes that work in specific parts of the body, need to work at a specific pH

16 Effect of pH on Enzyme Reaction Rate Pepsin is an enzyme in the stomach and as a pH optimum of about 1.5. Salivary amylase and alakaline phosphatase have pH optima of 6 and 9 respectively.

17

18 7C. Enzyme Destruction: Salinity can also denature enzymes

19 Meet Milo, Larry, Ernest & the Rest

20 Enzyme Review… 1. Biomolecule Group: Proteins 2. Every reaction has its own enzyme 3. Enzymes have specific shapes (based on amino acids) 4. Catalyze or speed up reactions 5. Increase the rate of reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed 6. Enzymes can be reused for more reactions 7. High temperatures, salinity, or pH can destroy or denature (change its shape)


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