Presentation on theme: "U1 LE6: For Further Study Metabolic Managers"— Presentation transcript:
1U1 LE6: For Further Study Metabolic Managers Enzymes
21. Enzymes are proteinsThey are built by organisms from the nutrients or biomolecules they take inEnzymes frequently end with the suffix “-ase”amylase, lactase, cellulase, sucrase
3Each lock requires it’s own key Every chemical reaction has it’s own enzyme
42. Every chemical reaction requires its own enzyme Amylase - breaks down starchSucrase – breaks down sucroseLactase – breaks down lactoseLipase – breaks down fatsPolymerase – Builds nucleic acids(DNA or RNA) from nucleotidesHelicase – Unwinds the DNA strand
5Is this enzyme performing catabolism or anabolism?
6Is this enzyme performing catabolism or anabolism? Reactant + Reactant > Product
73. Enzymes have specific shapes Enzymes can fold into different shapes based onthe number of amino acids,the type of amino acids,the sequence of amino acids.Ex. Analogy26 letters of the alphabet 20 amino acidsForm different words Form different proteinsEx. Ship vs. shipmate – different number and typeEx. Ship vs. Hips – different sequence
8Enzymes have specific shapes Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide lactose into glucose and galactoseOnly the molecule of lactose will fit into this enzymeCatabolic or Anabolic reaction?chemicalconnection.org.uk8
9Enzymes shapes can be very complex Enzymes shapes can be very complex . . this is a diagram of lactase folded
104. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of reactions Enzymes speed up reactions by a million timesIt would take 50 years to digest one meal without enzymesLife could not exist without enzymes, because metabolism would come to a screeching halt
115. Enzymes speed up reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed Enzymes speed up reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed to start the reactionstudent.ccbcmd.edu
126. Enzymes are not used up or changed in a reaction
137A. Enzyme Destruction: Temperature can change it’s shape or denature the enzyme High temperaturesDestroy the shape of enzymes – they can’t do their jobMetabolic process cannot occurThis is why heat stroke can kill you
14Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Reaction Rate 30864010450122The rate of enzyme catalyzed reactions will increase with increasing temperature (due to an increase of molecule collisions) until an optimum temperature is reached. Above the optimum temperature the enzyme changes shape and is denatured (destroyed).
157B. Enzyme Destruction: pH can change it’s shape or denature the enzyme An improper pH can destroy enzymesEnzymes that work in specific parts of the body, need to work at a specific pHBlood pH 7 – 7.45Stomach pH 1-4Intestine pH 8Mouth pH 6.7-7
16Effect of pH on Enzyme Reaction Rate Pepsin is an enzyme in the stomach and as a pH optimum of about Salivary amylase and alakaline phosphatase have pH optima of 6 and 9 respectively.
20Enzyme Review…1. Biomolecule Group: Proteins 2. Every reaction has its own enzyme 3. Enzymes have specific shapes (based on amino acids) 4. Catalyze or speed up reactions 5. Increase the rate of reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed 6. Enzymes can be reused for more reactions 7. High temperatures, salinity, or pH can destroy or denature (change its shape)