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Chemical Reactions and Enzymes. I. WHAT ARE ENZYMES?  Your body has lots of reactions!  Enzymes: special protein catalysts that speed up specific reactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Reactions and Enzymes. I. WHAT ARE ENZYMES?  Your body has lots of reactions!  Enzymes: special protein catalysts that speed up specific reactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

2 I. WHAT ARE ENZYMES?  Your body has lots of reactions!  Enzymes: special protein catalysts that speed up specific reactions  End in ASE Ex. Lactase digest lactose

3 ACTIVATION ENERGY: The energy needed to get a reaction started

4 III. LOWER THE ACTIVATION ENERGY Activation energy is the “start up” energy of a reaction They do not raise the temp! Increase the frequency that the reactants come together to react!

5 Free Energy Progress of the reaction Reactants Products Free energy of activation Without Enzyme With Enzyme Enzymes

6 IV. ENZYMES ARE SPECIFIC  The shape of each enzyme fits the shape of what its acting on  SUBSTRATE: the reactant that connects with enzyme  ACTIVE SITE: area where the substrate and enzyme meet up

7

8 V. LOCK AND KEY MODEL  Lock is the enzyme  Key is the substrate  The lock hole is the active site

9 Enzymes can only catalyze 1 reaction because they only allow substrates with one particular shape to bond oes not fit!

10 FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE ENZYME PERFORMANCE  Temperature  pH  Salinity  Concentration of enzyme or substrate

11 TEMPERATURE  Enzymes are PROTEIN  Heat too high they can denature

12  Enzymes work best at an ‘optimal’ pH  Proteins they can denature pH

13 SALINITY  Too much salt will cause the enzyme (protein) to denature, changing its shape so it will not function

14 OTHER FACTORS  Concentration of enzyme and concentration of substrate will affect how many reactions can occur.  Reactions depend on the limiting factor!

15 ENZYMES ARE REUSABLE  Enzymes will speed the reaction for a substrate  It will release the product and will work on another substrate

16 EXAMPLES  Lipase  Protease  Lactase  Sucrase  Amylase  Life is not possible without enzymes! !!!!!!!


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