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Enzymes: “Helper” Protein molecules

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Presentation on theme: "Enzymes: “Helper” Protein molecules"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enzymes: “Helper” Protein molecules

2 Chemical reactions of life
Processes of life building molecules synthesis breaking down molecules digestion + +

3 Nothing works without enzymes!
How important are enzymes? all chemical reactions in living organisms require enzymes to work building molecules synthesis enzymes breaking down molecules digestive enzymes enzymes speed up reactions, they are REUSABLE“catalysts” enzyme + enzyme We can’t live without enzymes! +

4 Enzymes A protein catalyst
Enzymes are important proteins found in living things. An enzyme is a protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction. They speed metabolic reactions. Usually end in –ASE

5 Examples synthesis enzyme + digestion enzyme +

6 Enzymes are proteins Each enzyme is the specific helper to a specific reaction each enzyme needs to be the right shape for the job enzymes are named for the reaction they help sucrase breaks down sucrose proteases breakdown proteins lipases breakdown lipids DNA polymerase builds DNA Oh, I get it! They end in -ase

7 Enzymes are used all over the body!


9 Enzymes aren’t used up Enzymes are not changed by the reaction
used only temporarily re-used again for the same reaction with other molecules very little enzyme needed to help in many reactions substrate product active site enzyme

10 It’s shape that matters!
Lock & Key model shape of protein allows enzyme & substrate to fit specific enzyme for each specific reaction (Think back to our power point on Maltase)

11 Lock and Key Model

12 Lock and Key S E Enzyme may be used again Enzyme-substrate complex P
Reaction coordinate

13 2 1 3

14 Enzyme vocabulary Enzyme Substrate Products Active site
helper protein molecule Substrate molecule that enzymes work on Products what the enzyme helps produce from the reaction Active site part of enzyme that substrate molecule fits into

15 Enzyme- Substrate Complex
The substance (reactant) an enzyme acts on is the substrate Substrate joins Enzyme

16 Active site A restricted region of an enzyme molecule which binds to the substrate. Active Site Enzyme Substrate

17 Induced Fit A change in the shape of an enzyme’s active site
Induced by the substrate

18 Induced Fit A change in the configuration of an enzyme’s active site (H+ and ionic bonds are involved). Induced by the substrate. Enzyme Active Site substrate

19 Activation Energy

20 Enzymes Lower Activation Energy

21 What affects enzyme action
Correct protein structure correct order of amino acids why? enzyme has to be right shape Temperature (High Temps may denature the enzyme) (UNFOLD) pH (acids & bases) Substrate concentration

22 Order of amino acids Wrong order = wrong shape = can’t do its job! DNA
folded protein chain of amino acids DNA right shape! folded protein chain of amino acids DNA wrong shape!

23 Temperature Effect on rates of enzyme activity Optimum temperature
greatest number of collisions between enzyme & substrate human enzymes 35°- 40°C (body temp = 37°C) Raise temperature (boiling) denature protein = unfold = lose shape Lower temperature T° molecules move slower fewer collisions between enzyme & substrate

24 Temperature 37° human enzymes reaction rate temperature
What’s happening here?! 37° reaction rate temperature

25 pH Effect on rates of enzyme activity
changes in pH changes protein shape~ Denatures most human enzymes = pH 6-8 depends on where in body pepsin (stomach) = pH 3 trypsin (small intestines) = pH 8

26 pH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 stomach pepsin intestines trypsin
What’s happening here?! reaction rate 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH

27 Substrate concentration

28 Concentration

29 For enzymes… What matters?

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