Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

VI. Organic Compounds = carbon containing compounds A. Hydrocarbons = only carbon and hydrogen cinnamaldehyde.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "VI. Organic Compounds = carbon containing compounds A. Hydrocarbons = only carbon and hydrogen cinnamaldehyde."— Presentation transcript:

1 VI. Organic Compounds = carbon containing compounds A. Hydrocarbons = only carbon and hydrogen cinnamaldehyde

2 B. Functionalized Hydrocarbons = contain other elements + C + H

3 I.Chemical Stoichiometry [Chapter ] A.Balanced equations provide the relationship between the relative numbers of reacting molecules and product molecules 2 CO + O 2  2 CO CO molecules react with 1 O 2 molecules to produce 2 CO 2 molecules 2.2 moles CO molecules react with 1 mole O 2 molecules to produce 2 moles CO 2 molecules 3.Since moles can be converted to masses, we can determine the mass ratio of the reactants and products as well a.2 moles CO = 1mole O 2 = 2 moles CO 2 b.1 mole CO = g, 1 mole O 2 = g, and 1 mole CO 2 = g c.2(28.01) g CO = 1(32.00) g O 2 = 2(44.01) g CO 2 B.Procedure for calculating Masses of Reactants and Products in Reactions 1.Write a balanced equation for the reaction 2.Convert the known mass of a given reactant or product to moles 3.Use the balanced equation to find the moles of the unknown compound 4.Convert the moles of unknown to grams of unknown

4 C.Example: Determine the number of grams of Carbon Monoxide required to react with 48.0 g Oxygen, and determine the mass of Carbon Dioxide produced 1.Write the balanced equation 2 CO + O 2  2 CO 2 2.Use the coefficients to find the mole relationship 2 moles CO = 1 mol O 2 = 2 moles CO 2 3.Determine the Molar Mass of each 1 mol CO = g 1 mol O 2 = g 1 mol CO 2 = g 4.Use the molar mass of the given quantity to convert it to moles 5.Use the mole relationship to convert the moles of the given quantity to the moles of the desired quantity

5 6.Use the molar mass of the desired quantity to convert the moles to mass D.Example: What mass of O 2 will react with 96.1g of propane (C 3 H 8 )? E.Example: Lithium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide to form lithium carbonate and water. How much CO 2 can be absorbed by 1.00 kg LiOH? C 3 H 8 + 5O > 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O

6 II.Limiting and Excess Reactants A.Definitions 1.A reactant which is completely consumed is called a limiting reactant 2.A reactant not completely consumed in a reaction is called an excess reactant 3.The maximum amount of a product that can be made when the limiting reactant is completely consumed is called the theoretical yield B. Example: CH 4 + H 2 O > 3H 2 + CO 1.The stoichiometry is supposed to be 1:1 for methane and water 2.Water is the limiting reactant 3.Methane is the excess reactant 4.The theoretical yield is 9H 2 5.The theoretical yield is 3CO

7 C.Determine the Mass of Carbon Dioxide produced when 48.0 g of Oxygen reacts with 56.0 g of Carbon Monoxide 1.Write the balanced equation 2 CO + O 2  2 CO 2 2.Use the coefficients to find the mole relationship 2 moles CO = 1 mol O 2 = 2 moles CO 2 3.Determine the Molar Mass of each 1 mol CO = g 1 mol O 2 = g 1 mol CO 2 = g 4.Determine the moles of each reactant 5.Determine the number of moles of reactant A needed to react with reactant B

8 6.Compare the calculated number of moles of reactant A to the number of moles given of reactant A a.If the calculated moles is greater, then A is the Limiting Reactant; if the calculated moles is less, then A is the Excess Reactant b.The calculated moles of O 2 (1.00 moles) is less than the given 1.50 moles, therefore O 2 is the excess reactant 7.Use the limiting reactant to determine the moles of product, then the mass of product D.25.0 kg N 2 and 5.00 kg H 2 are reacted to make how much NH 3 ? 1.N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) > 2NH 3 (g)

9 2.827 mol N 2 are needed and we are given 893 mol N 2 a.H 2 is the limiting reagent b.N 2 is the excess reagent 3.Calculate the amount of product formed from the limiting reagent

10 III.Percent Yield A.Most reactions do not go to completion 1.The amount of product made in an experiment is called the actual yield 2.The percentage of the theoretical yield that is actually made is called the percent yield B.Example: CO and H 2 combine to form CH 3 OH. What is the theoretical yield of CH 3 OH if 68.5 kg CO and 8.60 kg H 2 were reacted? What is the percent yield if 35.7 kg was the actual yield of CH 3 OH? 1. CO + 2H > CH 3 OH Percent Yield = Actual Yield Theoretical Yield x 100%

11 2.2,135 mol CO are needed and we are given 2,440 mol CO a.H 2 is the limiting reagent b.CO is the excess reagent 3.Calculate the amount of product formed from the limiting reagent 4.The Theoretical Yield of CH 3 OH is 68.6 kg 5.The Percent Yield of CH 3 OH = ?


Download ppt "VI. Organic Compounds = carbon containing compounds A. Hydrocarbons = only carbon and hydrogen cinnamaldehyde."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google