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Slavery, Freedom, and British Empire in the Colonial Period Olaudah Equano 1789 The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Challenges to.

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Presentation on theme: "Slavery, Freedom, and British Empire in the Colonial Period Olaudah Equano 1789 The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Challenges to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slavery, Freedom, and British Empire in the Colonial Period Olaudah Equano 1789 The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Challenges to image of Africa and Africans Represents expansion and freedom Atlantic World: Bridge between Old and New Worlds Flow of ideas, people, and goods Culture, laws and political institutions reflect European powers 18 th century- Height of slave trade 1700-1775- 280,000 slaves out of 585,000 persons Contradictions in British America Liberty for whom?

2 #1: Slavery and Empire The World the Slaveholders Made World Commerce-slave trade Asiento- Spanish Treaty of Utrecht 1713 (Dutch) Atlantic Trade (First Lecture Notes) Triangular Trade routes Caribbean- seasoning process Tobacco, Indigo, Rice, Sugar Sir William Dunbar of Natchez, MS and Jamaica Middle Passage: “the door of no return…” 1762- Quaker Abolitionist John Woolman

3 Africa and the Slave Trade Gunpowder Empires (First Lecture Notes) European supply of weapons to African societies African Rulers Involvement in Triangular Slave Trade Played Europeans against one another Collected taxes from foreign merchants Sold captives to European traders Consequences (First Lecture Notes: Portuguese) Disruption of African society Cheap imports/traditional crafts Militarized states Loss of people weakened and distorted West Africa

4 Slavery in the Colonies What is a slave society VS a society with slaves? The Chesapeake Tobacco-based plantation slavery Consolidation of the Elite South Carolina and Georgia Rice-based plantation slavery Indigenous slavery Rice Kingdom The Experiment in Georgia New England and Middle Colonies No plantations Slavery and the Law Enhancement of master’s power Violence Race as a social division Free-Blacks in Virginia

5 Slavery in the North Development of Free-Black Communities Philadelphia “In the Shadow of Slavery…” New York Colonial Life Work patterns Differences of Law Marraiges Testify in Court Own property/Pass along rights Slavery in New York Slavery in Philadelphia

6 Slave Culture In the Nether World… Charter generations (Ira Berlin) Abduhl Rahman, Natchez, Mississippi Process of creating cohesive culture 19 th century- identify as African Americans Creoles: Slaves born in the New World The World the Slave Made… John Blassingame and Eugene Genovese Slave quarters and Family South Carolina and Georgia The Gullah Enslaved Women Code Noir Slave religion Syncretic religions- Catholicism and Vodu. Candoble

7 Resistance to Enslavement Occurred At point of Contact During Middle Passage Every facet of society, each day, in the New World Forms Overt: Rebellions and Uprisings, Active forms of resistance, use of religion, meetings, running away,), burning property Covert: Poisoning, breaking tools, work-slow down, feigning sickness or ignorance, burning property Creation of Maroon Communities: Latin America (Cimarron’s) Quilombo, Palmares Hispaniola 1522- first documented slave revolt on island (Haiti/ St. Dominique) Impact: dramatic increase after 1600- affected every part of Africa, introduced fire-arms: Fostered conflict and violence/ growth of Dahomey- powerful slave raiding state/ upset cultural, political, and environmental features of Africa The African Diaspora: Ashanti proverb,” the tree is not cut…” Plantation Societies- introduction of cash crops Sustaining African cultural traditions African and Creole languages Cultural traditions: foods, weaving, pottery, artwork

8 The Turning Point…The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804 Boukman and a ceremony i n Bois Caïman … Situation in 1789: social hierarchy “Declaration of Rights of Man” Vincent Oge Slave revolt against French masters Key Leaders Toussaint L’ Ouverture Jean-Jacques Dessalines Second and Third Phases of Revolution Civil War, Economic and Political instability Impact on Slavery in North America Restrictive Laws

9 #2: Creating a British Empire: Mechanisms for Freedom British Patriotism Symbolism Economy Religious British Constitution Identity and Concept of Liberty Slavery and Liberty Contempt of Foreigners Language General right to resist

10 Political Ideals in the Anglo-American World Republican Liberty Public and Social Quality Virtue “Country Party” Britain: luxury and political manipulation Liberal Freedom (Liberalism) Private and Individual John Locke Opinions about women Exclusions to universal right of liberty

11 Colonial Policies and the Public Sphere The Right to Vote Colonial Politics Law verses Custom: Free Blacks Political Culture Competitive- Middle Colonies Appointive verses elected Property Qualifications Wealth, Education, Social Prominence=right to public office Colonial Government Salutary neglect The Rise of Assemblies Pennsylvania

12 Politics and the Press in Public Space Language and the Political Nation Dominated by gentry Expansion of public sphere Literary, Philosophical, Scientific, Political Benjamin Franklin and the Junto American Philosophical Association The Colonial Press Market for printed material Circulating libraries Colonial newspapers Freedom of Expression Freedom of speech: 16 th century Britain Freedom of press: viewed as dangerous/discouraged

13 #3: Imperial Rivalries Historical Snapshot: Women in the Spanish Territories Dependents in Need of Protection… Free and Enslaved Women Marriage and Common-Law Spanish Florida and Race 13

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