2Section 1 Focus Question: How did the rise of cotton cultivation affect the society and economy of the Old South?Big Picture:1770’s—Tobacco = no profit1830’s—Cotton needed by BR & NE
3The Old South & Slavery Cotton…again Climate No tools Cotton gin —slave pop boomDemand in NECorn alternate cropUpper South—VA, NC, TN, AR (relied less on slavery)Lower or Deep South—SC, GA, FL, MS, LA, TX
4King Cotton Upper South Lower South Grew veggies & hemp Less reliable on slavesSettlers from lower south were from upper southWhite southerners benefited from 3/5 clauseAbolitionists criticized both regions for slaveryCotton & sugar = $ = internal slave tradeUpper SouthLower South
7North & South Diverge Industry Education 1/3 pop lived in South Industry in VA & SCTredegar Iron WorksNo workforceIndustry = sell slaves = no $Refused to pay for public educationAll would be farmersEducating slaves = illegalBy CW, 60 % of NC illiterate
8Section 2 Focus Question: What major social divisions segmented the white South?Big Picture:Four Southern groups: Planters (1%), yeomen, small farmers, & pine barren folks.
9Social Groups of the South Used plantation agricultureLived in AL & MSShowed wealth by slave #“Agents” sold cottonCheated— “mulattos”PlantersYeomenPinebarren FolkSmall Slaveholders88% of holders had 20+ slavesLawyers, Dr, & ArtisansSlave use:Upland-harvest onlyLower-moreDesired live of PlanterTook out loans for land in AL & MSNonslaveholdersSlave use:Only at harvestPaid slavesDepended on family to work landControlled most southern landDemocraticBelieved in self-sufficiency.10% of Southern whitesSquatters, raised hogsRefused slave-like work
10Section 3 Focus Question: Why did nonslaveholding whites feel their futures were tied to the survival of slavery?Big Picture:North—forces own race into labor.South—exploits blacks through slavery.
11Section 4 Focus Question: What were the distinctive features of African-American society & culture in the South?Big Picture:Slave location/labor determined treatment
121700’s 1830’s Slave Experiences Age: 20’s—slave ship Africa/Caribbean Different languageNo partnersLow birth numbers due to female malnutritionWorked on small, isolated farmsFemales & malesEnglish languageRatio of male to female equalHigher birth ratesPlantation agricultureChesapeake area or lower SouthSlave trade banned in 1808
15Working ¾ of all slaves lived on plantations with 10+ Men & women Sun up to sundownSmaller farms: “task system”Larger farms: worked under an overseer
16Slave Family Master encouraged “slave marriage” ChildrenDiscourage runawaysLaw did not protect slaves (or crimes committed against them)Families sold & separatedSexual abuse from masters“Fictive Kin”
17Diet & Life High reproduction rate Equal ratio2/3 lived to be 10 yoBalanced diet of vegetables and meat.Resistant to malaria & yellow feverHome remediesLived in crude wooden cabinsInfected water to do bacteria and “waste”
18Free Blacks1860—1/3 of free blacks lived in upper South & ½ of free blacks lived in lower South.Easier to get jobs in the South vs North.Lived in rural areas.Carpenters, coopers, barbers, small traders, and worked in markets.Organized own churches and schools.
20African American Culture Languages of slaves:Pidgin—dropping connector words & blend of African, Spanish, and English.Religion:African slaves worshipped many religions“Witchcraft”Water Symbolism—early slaves were baptized b/c water was significant in their religion.ReligionPlantation owners brought in preachersPreach that slaver was justified by BibleSlaves began interpreting their struggle as a “test” from god and master would “get theirs”Similar to Jews who were enslaved by Romans.
21African American Culture Black Music & DanceStruggle expressed in music: drums, clapping“Patting the juba”SpiritualsSung in fields to talk about escape.Underground Railroad:Created to help slaves escape to Canada or Mexico.Harriet Tubman
22Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.