Presentation on theme: " 1830-1860. Focus Question: How did the rise of cotton cultivation affect the society and economy of the Old South? Big Picture: 1770’s—Tobacco ="— Presentation transcript:
Focus Question: How did the rise of cotton cultivation affect the society and economy of the Old South? Big Picture: 1770’s—Tobacco = no profit 1830’s—Cotton needed by BR & NE
Upper South—VA, NC, TN, AR (relied less on slavery) Lower or Deep South—SC, GA, FL, MS, LA, TX Cotton…again o Climate o No tools o Cotton gin o — slave pop boom o Demand in NE o Corn alternate crop
Grew veggies & hemp Less reliable on slaves Settlers from lower south were from upper south White southerners benefited from 3/5 clause Abolitionists criticized both regions for slavery Cotton & sugar = $ = internal slave trade Upper South Lower South
Industry 1/3 pop lived in South Industry in VA & SC o Tredegar Iron Works No workforce Industry = sell slaves = no $ Education Refused to pay for public education o All would be farmers Educating slaves = illegal By CW, 60 % of NC illiterate
Focus Question: What major social divisions segmented the white South? Big Picture: Four Southern groups: Planters (1%), yeomen, small farmers, & pine barren folks.
Planters Yeomen Pinebarren Folk Small Slaveholders Used plantation agriculture Lived in AL & MS Showed wealth by slave # “Agents” sold cotton Cheated— “mulattos” 88% of holders had 20+ slaves Lawyers, Dr, & Artisans Slave use: Upland-harvest only Lower-more Desired live of Planter Took out loans for land in AL & MS Nonslaveholders Slave use: Only at harvest Paid slaves Depended on family to work land Controlled most southern land Democratic Believed in self- sufficiency. 10% of Southern whites Squatters, raised hogs Refused slave-like work
Focus Question: Why did nonslaveholding whites feel their futures were tied to the survival of slavery? Big Picture: North—forces own race into labor. South—exploits blacks through slavery.
Focus Question: What were the distinctive features of African-American society & culture in the South? Big Picture: Slave location/labor determined treatment
1700’s1830’s Age: 20’s—slave ship Africa/Caribbean Different language No partners Low birth numbers due to female malnutrition Worked on small, isolated farms Females & males English language Ratio of male to female equal Higher birth rates Plantation agriculture Chesapeake area or lower South Slave trade banned in 1808
Slave-Owning Population (1850)
Slave-Owning Families (1850)
¾ of all slaves lived on plantations with 10+ Men & women Sun up to sundown Smaller farms: “task system” Larger farms: worked under an overseer
Master encouraged “slave marriage” o Children o Discourage runaways Law did not protect slaves (or crimes committed against them) Families sold & separated Sexual abuse from masters “Fictive Kin”
High reproduction rate o Equal ratio o 2/3 lived to be 10 yo Balanced diet of vegetables and meat. Resistant to malaria & yellow fever o Home remedies Lived in crude wooden cabins Infected water to do bacteria and “waste”
1860—1/3 of free blacks lived in upper South & ½ of free blacks lived in lower South. Easier to get jobs in the South vs North. Lived in rural areas. Carpenters, coopers, barbers, small traders, and worked in markets. Organized own churches and schools.
Languages of slaves: o Pidgin—dropping connector words & blend of African, Spanish, and English. Religion: o African slaves worshipped many religions o “Witchcraft” o Water Symbolism—early slaves were baptized b/c water was significant in their religion. Religion o Plantation owners brought in preachers Preach that slaver was justified by Bible Slaves began interpreting their struggle as a “test” from god and master would “get theirs” Similar to Jews who were enslaved by Romans.
Black Music & Dance o Struggle expressed in music: drums, clapping o “Patting the juba” o Spirituals Sung in fields to talk about escape. Underground Railroad: Created to help slaves escape to Canada or Mexico. Harriet Tubman
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.