Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Slavery and the Old South Nash, Jeffery. The American People, 6 th ed. Pearson Longman. Nash, Jeffery. The American People, 6 th ed. Pearson."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 Slavery and the Old South Nash, Jeffery. The American People, 6 th ed. Pearson Longman. Nash, Jeffery. The American People, 6 th ed. Pearson Longman.
The Expansion of Slavery in a Global Economy In 1860 the American South, if independent, would have been one of the wealthiest countries in the world based on the revenue of the cotton trade. Cotton cultivation and its expansion depended on technological development, land, labor, demand, and a global system of trade.
Slavery in Latin America Europeans depended on African slavery in their New World colonies. African slaves were imported to replace the indigenous populations that were eradicated by disease. Sugar production was the cash crop for the Latin American holdings of the European powers.
White and Black Migrations in the South Between 1830 and 1860, southerners began to migrate in a southwest direction to fill up the fertile land and increase cotton production for the mills of England. The center of cotton production gradually shifted from South Carolina to Mississippi. An estimated 1 million slaves were transported westward by this white migration.
Paternalism and Honor in the Planter Class Most Southern males adhered to a long- standing tradition of medieval chivalry and aversion to industrialization. The Southern planters developed a paternalistic attitude towards his slaves; a kindly father-and-child relationship. An intensely masculine code of honor placed the virtue of women on a pedestal. The smallest insult could lead to pistol duels.
Yeoman Farmers Most slaveholders (70 percent) belonged to the mid-level yeoman farmer class. A Yeoman farmer might have owned as many as ten slaves, but usually work alongside them. 75 percent of all southerners held no slaves at all.
Justifying Slavery Biblical Justification: ancient curse upon Ham, a child of Noah and other references Historical Justification: all great civilizations participated in slavery Legal Justification: the U.S. Constitution refused to address slavery directly Scientific Justification: multiple theories regarding inferiority of the black race Sociological Justification: the black race as societal “children” that needed paternalistic guidance
Daily Toil Slaves were expected to work an average of 14 hours per day during warm weather and 10 hours in the winter. Work gangs of 20 to 25 slaves labored under the whip of a “slave driver.” The task system allowed slaves to finish a designated task each day at their own pace. A normal slave was expected to pick 130 to 150 pounds of cotton a day.
Slave Law and the Family The legal status of slaves in the South was never fully resolved, leading to a wide range of laws governing the treatment of African Americans. Marriages between slaves were often arranged for optimal genetic reproduction. Slave families were often separated.
Black Christianity Christian worship was an integral part of life in the slave quarters. Black Christianity often included aspects of Islamic and African religions. Black religious gatherings were usually forbidden unless a white overseer was present. For the white planters, religion became a type of social control.
The Enduring Family Family relationships were central to the lives of most slaves. Slaves could draw love, protection, support, knowledge, and cultural identity from these extended families. Slaves often performed extra work to provide extra food and clothing for their families.
Forms of Black Protest Daily acts of resistance might include breaking of tools, burning houses or crops, stealing food, self mutilation or simple work slowdowns. Females might fake sickness or menstrual cramps. The ultimate forms were murder or running away.