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US History: Slavery, Freedom, and The Crisis of Union.

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Presentation on theme: "US History: Slavery, Freedom, and The Crisis of Union."— Presentation transcript:

1 US History: Slavery, Freedom, and The Crisis of Union

2 Questions to consider 1. How did slavery shape the economic and social relations in the Old South? 2. What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? 3. Why did many white southerners support slavery even while they did not own slaves themselves? 4. Why do you think slavery was called the “peculiar institution?”

3 Objective You will all… Analyze the economic and social role of Slavery in the Old South and understand the conditions of slave life,

4 How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? King Cotton: cotton replaced sugar as the world’s major crop produced by slave labor. 3/4 ths of the worlds cotton supply came from the southern U.S. Cotton supplied the textile mills in the North and Great Britain.

5 How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? The Southern Economy: economic growth was different from the North. There were few large cities in the South. The cities were mainly centers for gathering and shipping cotton.

6 Ch. 11, Image 5

7 How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? The “Plain Folk” of the Old South: three out of four white southerners did not own slaves. Most white southerners lived on self-sufficient farms in isolated areas and were poorly educated. Most supported slavery. The majority supported the planter elite and slavery because of shared bonds of regional loyalty, racism, and kinship ties -- ETHNOCENTRISM

8 Ch. 11, Image 6

9 How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? The Planter Class: Ownership of slaves provided a route to wealth, status, and influence. It was customary and property was passed down through generations Slavery was a profit-making economic system. Men watched the world market for cotton, invested in infrastructure, and managed their plantations. Young boys went to military schools to learn how to “manage” people through discipline and studies

10 How did slavery shape social and economic relations in the Old South? Paternalism: from the word patria as in father, this was the idea that slaves were well taken care of under slavery. Slave owners were committed to a hierarchical, agrarian society. Paternalism was a kind of proslavery argument which enabled slave owners to think of themselves as kind, responsible masters.

11 Ch. 11, Image 10

12 What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Slaves were considered chattel, or property and had few legal rights. They could not testify against a white person, carry weapons, or leave the plantations. Labor was most of the slaves daily existence Foundation – Barbados slave codes

13 What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Gang labor and task labor: Most slaves worked in the fields. An estimated 75% of women and 90% of men worked as field hands. On large plantations they worked in gangs under the direction of an overseer, a man who was generally considered to be cruel by the slaves. House labor and field labor as well – social hierarchy among the slave population – Mulattos vs. African

14 Ch. 11, Image 15

15 What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? Maintaining Order: The system of maintaining order rested on force. There were many tools a master had to keep order, including whipping, exploiting divisions among slaves, incentives, denial of education, and the threat of sale.

16 Ch. 11, Image 18

17 Ch. 11, Image 21

18 Comprehension Check Take no more than the next 15 minutes to answer the following four multiple choice questions and two short answer using the key terms from lecture.

19 The Peculiar Institution 1. In the Old South, the percentage of white families that owned slaves was approximately 10 percent. 25 percent. 40 percent. 60 percent.

20 The Peculiar Institution 2. Which of the following was not a central theme of planter ideology? The competitive marketplace is where we make our fortunes—but it is not where we derive our values. There is no place for fixed social hierarchies in a democratic republic. We are the aristocrats of our region; women, children, slaves, and poorer whites depend upon us for guidance and protection. Wealth is meant to be consumed, not merely reinvested.

21 The Peculiar Institution 3. Cotton was “King” during the first half of the nineteenth century. Three-fourths of the world’s supply came from the United States, and textile manufacturers in New England, Great Britain, France, and Russia depended on the American cotton supply. Define “textile”: Tiles, usually made of ceramic and cotton, used in building houses, manufacturing plants, and government buildings. Woven cloth. A small book or text, usually on a topic of general interest to the reading public. Steam engine-powered factory or manufactures.

22 The Peculiar Institution 4. Slaves made up a significant portion of the Old South’s field laborers. house servants. skilled artisans. all of the above.

23 Short Answer Key Terms: King Cotton, the Southern economy, Plain folk of the Old South, Planter class, Paternalism, Chattel, Gang labor, Overseer, Maintaining order… 1. How did slavery shape the economic and social relations in the Old South? 2. What were the conditions in which slaves lived and worked? 4 Advanced3 Proficient2.5 Basic2 Below Basic Shows mastery of the objective by explaining all key terms in proper context Understanding of objective shown by explaining most key terms Knowledge of objective shown through explanation of some key terms Misunderstanding of objective or incorrect use of several key terms


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