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Researched Paper Skills Review CCC Renchen. Introduction Paragraphs Research Skills.

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Presentation on theme: "Researched Paper Skills Review CCC Renchen. Introduction Paragraphs Research Skills."— Presentation transcript:

1 Researched Paper Skills Review CCC Renchen

2 Introduction Paragraphs Research Skills

3  Attention Getting Device (AGD) (Think BROAD, ENGAGING statement or necessary background information.)  No questions. None. Stop it.  Quotes should only be used as AGD if INCREDIBLY relevant (this means you probably find them within the research that you found on your topic, not on “Quote Garden” or any of that nonsense.)  Narrowing information (Whatever the audience needs to get from your broad statement to your specific argument/topic) (Make sure each sentence flows logically to next)  Thesis Sentence (Concession + Argument Summary) Introduction Paragraph

4  One complex sentence—starting with a concession and ending in a statement of your argument  A concession is a sentence that admits something contrary to your argument (Signal words: although, despite, even though)  Should be broad enough to cover all arguments (but NO LISTING)  Should make clear what you are arguing. Thesis Sentence

5  Bad example:  Despite the many advantages of nuclear power, there are more disadvantages to this type of power. (This is bad because it doesn’t take a strong stance and isn’t very specific. Word choice is general)  Better examples:  Even though chemical weapons provide protection to weaker countries that have no other means to protect themselves, these weapons must be restricted to protect the world from the risk of death and destruction.  Although cloning human beings could prove to be beneficial in dealing with health issues, the risks and ethics involved make human cloning too dangerous to pursue. Example Thesis

6 BEST EXAMPLES: thorough, specific, strong concession  Although the media has led society to believe that using medication to treat children with ADHD does more harm than good, doctors should prescribe the drug to children with ADHD because of the positive impact the drug will have on the child.  Although the donations are overtly insufficient for the demand, the destructive nature of organ markets makes them disastrous to the moral and financial fiber society. Further Examples

7 INTRO PARAGRAPH  Children with ADHD and their families will suffer from the disease and have to deal with the consequences if doctors do not prescribe medication to the children. In recent years, the public has been led to believe that there are too many side effects of medicating ADHD children and doctors should not give medication. In truth, some side effects are prevalent in children taking the ADHD medication, but the benefits clearly outweigh the risk. Although the media has led society to believe that using medication to treat children with ADHD does more harm than good, doctors should prescribe the drugs to children with ADHD because of the positive impact the drug will have on the child.

8 Body Paragraphs Research Skills

9  Encompass entire paragraph (state the topic of that paragraph)  Make arguments connected to thesis statement— your reasons The best writers…  Use complex sentences to transition between arguments Each paragraph starts with a Topic Sentence

10  Link ideas in a specific way  don’t rely on generic transitions that could be inserted anywhere  Highlight key phrases from preceding paragraph in following paragraph to create a logical progression  Use transitions that could only connect one specific paragraph/idea to another specific paragraph/idea Using Topic Sentences to Transition…

11 BAD Example: Last sentence of P1: Overall, Management Systems International has logged increased sales in every sector, leading to a significant rise in third-quarter profits. Topic/Transition: Another important thing to note is that the corporation had expanded its international influence. Revised Topic/Transition: These impressive profits are largely due to the corporation's expanded international influence. OR: While impressive profits have been recorded, this would not have been possible without the corporations new focus on international influence. Topic Sentences that Transition

12  Each paragraph should work through the logic behind one of your “reasons.”  This will be in the form of your own conclusions and the research you’ve found.  It is generally beneficial to end each paragraph by summarizing your argument. After Topic/Transition Sentence…

13 Integrating Research Research Skills

14 Quotes come WORD FOR WORD from your source.  Quotes are indicated by the use of quotation marks.  An in-text citation MUST follow each quote. Paraphrases come from your source, but are put into YOUR OWN WORDS.  Paraphrases do not use quotation marks.  An in-text citation MUST follow each quote. What is the difference between paraphrasing and quoting?

15 1.Introduce source/context of quote 2.Include quote 3.Add an in-text citation after the quote. 4.Explain in a few sentences how the quote supports your argument and/or the significance of the quote The Steps to Quoting

16  If referencing an idea or statistic that might be confusing, explain some background info  If referencing a person or group that the reader may be unfamiliar with, explain why they are credible.  Set us up to understand the quote, even before we read it! INTRODUCE QUOTE: give source/ context, give any background info

17 Bad EX: Mike Burita said,… OK EX: McDonald’s has made their nutritional information readily available to customers. As Mike Burita, the communications director for the Center for Consumer Freedom, explains,… EX: Fast food restaurants have taken measures to improve their customer’s health, illustrating that they have indeed made efforts to prevent obesity. In response to the lawsuits and accusations being hurled at it, McDonald’s has made their nutritional information readily available to customers. As Mike Burita, the communications director for the Center for Consumer Freedom, explains,… INTRODUCE QUOTE: give source/ context, give any background info

18 After you introduce the quote, you need either a comma or colon  When your introduction is NOT a complete sentence, there should be a COMMA, before the quote  When your introduction is a complete sentence, there should be a COLON : before the quote.  Surround the quote with “ ”  Quotes should only include the most essential information EX: “There’s nutritional content available on the chart, it’s available on the wall, it’s available in literature behind the counter, it’s available on the Internet. Anybody that wants to know the nutritional content of a Big Mac or fries or a shake can readily have it at their fingertips. To suggest that information isn’t there is just ridiculous” Include Quote

19  Anything that is changed in a quote should be in [brackets].  If you take anything out of a quote, use an ellipses […]  If your quote is longer than 4 lines, remove the quotations, set the quote as a new paragraph tabbed over (see me with questions) Include Quotes

20 What goes in the parentheses?????? 1.The first significant word from the Works Cited page 2.The page # in parentheses. If there is no page # put n.pag.  Place punctuation after the parentheses. GENERAL FORMAT: Lead in, “QUOTE” (Smith 5). Lead in: “QUOTE” (Smith 5). In-text Citation for Quote

21  In an interview with Newsweek, Mrs. Renchen said, “I’m unsure why I’m being interviewed” (Smith 23).  Studies conducted by Harvard’s Psychology program indicated that “approximately 50% of humans are female” (Jones n.pag.).  It’s clear from Johnson’s article that early start times detract from the educational goals of schools: “80% of high schools starting before 7:30 experience lower test scores than schools of similar demographics but later start times” (67). Quote Examples

22  Should be at least as long, if not 2xs the length, of quote EX: Not only has McDonald’s provided nutritional information to consumers, they have also incorporated healthy items and portion sizes into their menu. Salads, grilled chicken sandwiches, and a variety of other low calorie meals are offered for health conscious consumers. McDonald’s has also removed their trademark “supersize” option from their menu, which provided larger portions of French fries and soft drinks for only a few cents extra cost. This cutback demonstrates McDonald’s dedication to preventing obesity, as does their decision to stop using trans-fats in cooking oil. Given these efforts to increase the nutritious value of their meals, it seems unfair to declare fast food restaurants the cause of obesity. EXPLAIN QUOTE: Explain what it means, why it is important, and how it relates to your argument

23  In the book, Are Americans Overmedicated?, parent E. Clarke Ross explains that he has had first-hand experience with ADHD when his son suffered from the disease: “The reality that children and adolescents can and do suffer from AD/HD…is finally being recognized” (Hiber 59). Since the scientific community has reached out to those who are suffering from this disease, society is starting to understand how terrible this disease is. Put it all together…

24 Fast food restaurants have taken measures to improve their customer’s health, illustrating that they have indeed made efforts to prevent obesity. In response to the lawsuits and accusations being hurled at it, McDonald’s has made their nutritional information readily available to customers. As Mike Burita, the communications director for the Center for Consumer Freedom, explains, “There’s nutritional content available on the chart, it’s available on the wall, it’s available in literature behind the counter, it’s available on the Internet. Anybody that wants to know the nutritional content of a Big Mac or fries or a shake can readily have it at their fingertips. To suggest that information isn’t there is just ridiculous” (n.pag.) Not only has McDonald’s provided nutritional information to consumers, they have also incorporated healthy items and portion sizes into their menu. Salads, grilled chicken sandwiches, and a variety of other low calorie meals are offered for health conscious consumers. McDonald’s has also removed their trademark “supersize” option from their menu, which provided larger portions of French fries and soft drinks for only a few cents extra cost. This cutback demonstrates McDonald’s dedication to preventing obesity, as does their decision to stop using trans-fats in cooking oil. Given these efforts to increase the nutritious value of their meals, it seems unfair to declare fast food restaurants the cause of obesity. Put it all together…

25  Using researched information in own words  Still need to cite source  When to paraphrase  When quote is difficult to integrate because of the style (may be confusing, or clash with your writing)  When the quotation is long and wordy  When the reader would get the same effect even if it was reworded  When it is background information essential for understanding, but you would rather condense it into a couple of sentences. Paraphrasing

26 Paraphrasing Example The original passage:  Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): A plagiarized version:  Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. A acceptable paraphrase:  In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester ). An acceptable paraphrase:  Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).

27 Words and Phrases Research Skills

28  Link ideas in a specific way  Should work within paragraphs to move reader from one idea to the next in a logical way Don’t rely on generic transitions that could be inserted anywhere. While these are fine when used occasionally, they are not as effective as more specific and original transitions. Transition within a Paragraph

29 BAD Example: Overall, Management Systems International has logged increased sales in every sector, leading to a significant rise in third- quarter profits. Another important thing to note is that the corporation had expanded its international influence. Stronger transition: Overall, Management Systems International has logged increased sales in every sector, leading to a significant rise in third-quarter profits. These impressive profits are largely due to the corporation's expanded international influence. OR: Overall, Management Systems International has logged increased sales in every sector, leading to a significant rise in third-quarter profits. While impressive profits have been recorded, this would not have been possible without the corporations new focus on international influence. Transition within a Paragraph

30 Weak Example (transition is vague): Fearing for the loss of Danish lands, Christian IV signed the Treaty of Lubeck, effectively ending the Danish phase of the 30 Years War. But then something else significant happened. The Swedish intervention began. Revision (connects 2 specific ideas): Fearing for the loss of more Danish lands, Christian IV signed the Treaty of Lubeck, effectively ending the Danish phase of the 30 Years War. Shortly after Danish forces withdrew, the Swedish intervention began. Transition within a Paragraph

31 Weak Example: Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club, skyrocketed up the bestseller list. There are other things to note about Tan as well. Amy Tan also participates in the satirical garage band the Rock Bottom Remainders with Stephen King and Dave Barry. Revision: Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club, skyrocketed up the bestseller list. Though her fiction is well known, her work with the satirical garage band the Rock Bottom Remainders receives far less publicity. Transitions

32 Affectedchangedimpactedinfluenced Becauseled to which effectedcaused improvedaltered shaped as a result of transformed effects resulted illustrates Evolvedsupportsdemonstrates developed _____shows the influence of _____ _____ resulted in _______ _____ created a greater need for ______ Edge words—strengthen that language!

33 Counter Argument and Response/Rebuttal Research Skills

34 Counter argument:  A paragraph devoted to explaining a misconception OR an opposing argument Response to Counter Argument (aka Rebuttal):  A paragraph that either concedes or refutes.  Should point out why the writer’s opinion is still valid even in light of the counter argument. What are they?

35  Shows that you have considered both sides of the issue  Strengthens your argument because you have a chance to anticipate and answer reader’s questions  Develops your ETHOS Why Include Counter Argument?

36  One paragraph devoted to the STRONGEST ARGUMENT AGAINST your position EX: If I’m arguing FOR abortion, the strongest argument AGAINST my side is that abortion is murder.  Signal the beginning of the counter argument with a phrase like: Many people [believe/argue/feel/think/suppose] that… It is often [thought/imagined/supposed] that… [It would be easy to/One could easily] [think/believe/imagine/ suppose/etc] that… It might [seem/appear/look] as if… Then explain what the argument is and using research to support that argument. Counter Argument Paragraph

37 After presenting counter argument, you need to concede or refute… Concede: where you admit that the counter argument is true BUT continue by discussing why your argument is MORE TRUE or OUTWEIGHS concerns Refute: “prove” through logic or research that counter argument is false, illogical, irrelevant, etc. Refute/Concession Paragraph

38 First sentence of Response Paragraph should use a Topic/Transition sentence… To start your Concession paragraph  While it is true that [counter argument], one must consider….  This view is plausible, but fails to consider the importance of…  The core of this claim is true, yet…  This concern is undeniable, yet it fails to consider how invaluable… To start your Refuting paragraph  What this argument [overlooks/fails to consider/does not take into account] is...  This view [seems/looks/sounds] [convincing/plausible/persuasive] at first, but...  While this position is popular, it is [not supported by the facts/not logical/impractical] because…  Although the core of this claim is valid, it suffers from a flaw in its [reasoning/application] because…

39  The counter argument is true/verified/valid. Concede if…

40 Faulty Factual Assumption  Counter argument: Racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don’t need to bother with it.  Makes the assumption that racism is in the past—refute with current examples  Makes the assumption that we don’t need to bother with past things—show how past can still be important Refute if…

41 Faulty Analytical Assumption  Counter argument: Learning about racism might make students more racist.  Assumes that learning about racism=racism  Refute by explaining that learning about a problem is not the same as causing the problem Refute if…

42 Faulty Values  Counter argument: Who cares if students are racist?  Based on an assumed value that it’s okay to be racist  Refute by pointing out value and explaining why it is flawed Refute if…

43 True but Irrelevant  Counter argument: Students are already familiar with racism; they don’t need to study it in school.  True, yes, but argument is not about students being familiar with the concept, it’s about being familiar with causes.  Also, being familiar with something doesn’t meant that you know EVERYTHING you need to know. Refute if…

44 Other Research Paper Skills

45 Potential Outlines 1.Introduction 2.Supporting point #1 3.Supporting point #2 4.Supporting point #3 5.Supporting point #4 Counter-argument 6.Rebuttal 7.Conclusion 1.Counter-argument, which also serves as introduction…ending in thesis 2.Rebuttal, which starts with strong statement of argument 3.Supporting point #1 4.Supporting point #2 5.Supporting point #3 6.Supporting point #4 7.Conclusion

46  In your introduction paragraph?  In a short paragraph right after your introduction?  Little by little throughout the paper? Where should I give background info?

47  MLA format—can use online generator, but check formatting  Alphabetize entries—this is EASY, but frequently forgotten  Double spaced  Hanging indent (Type ALL sources. Then highlight sources and hit Ctrl T)  Highlight, then highlight in paper the info that came from that source in the same color. Works Cited Page


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