Presentation on theme: "Counterarguments & Rebuttals"— Presentation transcript:
1Counterarguments & Rebuttals Anticipate the naysayers, and prove them wrong!
2Overview Counterarguments & Rebuttals What are they, and why use them?Ways to introduce counterargumentsStructureTransition templatesWays to rebut counterargumentsFaulty factsFaulty analysisFaulty valuesExamples
3Counterarguments & Rebuttals What are they, and why use them?Counterarguments & Rebuttals
4Counterarguments Definition Purpose Presentation an argument opposed to your thesis, or part of your thesis. It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position.Purposegives you the chance to respond to your reader’s objections before they have finished reading. It also shows that you are a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the debate.PresentationShould be expressed thoroughly, fairly, and objectively.Should be a few sentences to a full paragraph; one sentence is not enough.Avoid sarcasm, loaded language, and vague connotation; will give the reader a disrespectful tone.Can be included anywhere in the argument: intro, immediately following claims, directly before conclusion.
5Counterargument Templates Quickly show what follows is someone else’s opinion:Many people [believe/argue/feel/think/suppose/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here]It is often [thought/imagined/supposed/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here][It would be easy to/One could easily] [think/believe/imagine/suppose/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here]It might [seem/appear/look/etc.] as if [state the counter-argument here]Another common approach is to use a question:But isn’t it true that [state the counter-argument here]?[Doesn’t/Wouldn’t/Isn’t] [state the counter-argument here]?You can also cite specific writers or thinkers who have expressed a view opposite to your own:On the other hand, Fund argues that...However, Ngugi has written, ...Dangarembga takes the position that...
6Rebuttals Definition Purpose Types of Rebuttals The techniques you use to disprove or show assumption flaws in a counterargument against you.PurposeRebutting a counterargument demonstrates your claims are superior to the claims of others; it adds ethos, logos, and pathos to your argumentTypes of RebuttalsFaulty Factual AssumptionFaulty Analytical AssumptionFaulty ValuesTrue, but IrrelevantStrengthens Own Argument
7Rebuttal TemplatesWhat this argument [overlooks/fails to consider/does not take into account] is ...This view [seems/looks/sounds/etc.] [convincing/plausible/persuasive/etc.] at first, but ...While this position is popular, it is [not supported by the facts/not logical/impractical/etc.]Although the core of this claim is valid, it suffers from a flaw in its [reasoning/application/etc.]
8ExamplesAll of these examples use a claim from James Loewen’s book, Lies My Teacher Told Me.In that book, Loewen makes the claim:“To function adequately in civic life … students must learn what causes racism” (143).
9Faulty Factual Assumptions CounterargumentRebuttalRacism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don’t need to bother with it.One response would be to muster facts to show that racism continues to be a problem.Example:This view overlooks the fact that 30% of 6th graders are victims of racial bullying.
10Faulty Analytical Assumptions CounterargumentRebuttalLearning about racism might make students more racist.The analytical assumption is that learning about racism can make you racist.The response would be that understanding the causes of a problem is not the same as causing or creating the problem.
11Faulty Values Who cares if students are racist? Counterargument RebuttalWho cares if students are racist?This counter-argument is based on an assumed value that your readers probably do not share—namely, the idea that it’s ok for students to be racist.The response would be to point out this value, state why you don’t share it and state why you don’t think your readers do either.Base your arguments on values that most readers are likely to share.
12True, but IrrelevantCounterargumentRebuttalStudents are already familiar with racism; they don’t need to study it in school.Many students are, in fact, already familiar with racism.But Loewen is not saying they need to learn about racism, he’s saying they need to learn what causes it.You might be very familiar with racism but still not know what causes it.
13Strengthens Own Argument CounterargumentRebuttalPrevious generations didn’t study the causes of racism, so why should we start now?The response here would be to show that previous generations did not “function adequately in civic life,” because they had a lot of problems with racism (segregation and more hidden forms of discrimination).Therefore, the fact that they didn’t learn about the causes of racism, together with this other information, actually supports the claim that students do need to learn what causes racism.
14Model Counterargument Essay Identify the rebuttals and their typesModel Counterargument Essay