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Unit 4 Anti-discrimination and educational policies and issues of racism 16 March 2005 Laura Laubeová

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1 Unit 4 Anti-discrimination and educational policies and issues of racism 16 March 2005 Laura Laubeová

2 Unit structure Technical issues Educational policies twds the Roma European UK CZ Antidiscrimination, anti-racism Reaction to anti-Gypsyism Hancocks arguments cf, WN UNDP Role of ERRC - Stigmata, ECHR Strasbourg

3 Technical/organisational Readers:Required Optional - last year reader Syllabus Presentations AQCIs send copy to Ilona Alexander-Klimova at

4 European level EC E P 1984 Council of Europe: ECRI FCNM Roma and travellers Division (1995) Specialist group MG –S-ROM (Migration Commission) Recommendation No 4 on education of Romani children in Europe (no 17, 2001 on employment; 2005 on housing)

5 WE WE - exclusion, separation, distance, margins, ignorance Debate on separate vs.. mainstream education provision Travelling population, incl. playground and circus people children provided with notebooks for their teachers. Separate and Equal, see USA Brown vs.. Topeca Board of Education, 1954: the Supreme Court concluded that segregation had a detrimental effect on African American children, referring to a number of social research reports

6 UK UK Thomas Acton Caravan schools At present 93% children included, professional service, e.g.. Cambridgeshire Multicultural Education Service- Traveller Education Team HMI - Arthur Ivats CERES- Traveller Education Centre OFSTED- David Gillborn Guillian Klein

7 CEE CE assimilation, after 89 segregation EE exclusion, segregation Separate vs. mainstream E.g. CZ : ERRC, Stigmata, ECHR case (1 st March 05) Paradox of Romani minority schools (for mentally retarded)

8 Education and Roma in CZ Push factors for systemic change: 97 Canada visa imposition EU accession Obsolete education legislation

9 Bratinka Report on situation of Romani Community, October 97 (out of 44 tasks 11 were for Ministry of Education) – Over two thirds of Roma children are in special schools (ss); 75% of children in ss are Roma Concept of Romani integration (7 April 99), adopted in 2000, reformulated "Conception on Romani Integration" adopted on 23 January 2002 ‑ no quota but equalising measures New Education Act (White Book) entered in force in Jan 2005 Now its impact being researched by the League of HR +ERRC, see Romano Hangos Vol.7, No 4, 10 March05, page 1-2

10 Criticism by UN, EC, US government reports, international NG0, etc UN CERD (Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination) Concluding observations on CR, 1998, "de facto” segregation (article 5 ICERD not fully implemented) UN CERD 2000 Report on CR UN CRC (Rights of Children) UN HRC (Human Rights Committee) Concluding observations, July 01, "to eradicate segregation of R.ch. in its edu...„ EC Opinion and Progress Reports on CR

11 ERRC: Ostrava region, 27 times more in Special Schools, 5% population, 50% in special schools Save the Children Fund: Denied a Future?, etails.jsp?id=366&group=resources§ion=publicatio n&subsection=details Role of NGOs

12 Achievements  Romani teacher assistants in 2003 (introduced in 1998) communication barrier, partnership teaching, small group work, contact with families, etc not systemic, inferior status, no educated R. teachers, if not successful ‑ blaming the victim  110 preparatory classes in 2001 (since 1994)  multicultural/ intercultural edu. programmes - NG0s (e.g. campaigns, e.g.. Be kind to your local Nazi), supported by Ministry of Education; community schools  New School, ops

13 Threats:  re-standardisation of psychological testing in the age of 6 - doubts about the concepts itself  subtractive versus additive bilingualism, irreversible cognitive damage (abstract thinking concepts - Piaget)  institutional, unwitting, indirect racism+ denial of racism

14 D.H. and Others v. Czech Republic first challenge to systematic racial segregation in education in Europe brought by 18 Roma children from Ostrava;All were placed in “special” remedial primary schools for those deemed to have mental disabilities. The complaint to the Court in 2000 by ERRC intensive qualitative and quantitative research into the situation of Roma in Czech schooling. research has revealed racial disparities :

15 D.H. and Others v. Czech Republic - ERRC research results  Over half of the Romani child population is schooled in remedial special education;  Over half of the population of remedial special schools is Romani;  Any randomly chosen Romani child is more than 27 times more likely to be placed in schools for the mentally disabled than a similarly situated non-Romani child.  Even where Romani children manage to avoid the trap of placement in remedial special schooling, they are most often schooled in substandard and predominantly Romani urban ghetto schools.

16 D.H. and Others v. Czech Republic - ERRC research results cont. standardized testing – used for placement in ss -- generally takes place only after a child has already been marked for assignment to remedial schools. The expert "test" is often a stamped seal on the decisions of school directors who will not accept Romani children into mainstream, quality schools.

17 D.H. and Others v. Czech Republic cont. The children note in their submissions to the Court that assignment to special school forever relegates them to second class citizenship. Students in special schools receive a markedly inferior education. Most graduates are shunted into vocational secondary schools limited to training in basic manual skills. Few Roma attend university. Romani unemployment rates in the Czech Republic, as in much of Europe, far exceed those for the rest of the population.

18 D.H. and Others v. Czech Republic cont Current educational arrangements in the Czech Republic also fail entirely to prepare ethnic Czech children for life in multi-cultural societies. In Ostrava, the Czech Republic's third city, despite the fact that Roma comprise approximately 10% of the local population, more than 15,000 Czech children of primary school age attend school every day without meeting a single Romani classmate.

19 D.H. and Others v. Czech Republic cont The 18 applicants in the case are represented by the European Roma Rights Centre and local counsel. In challenging their racial segregation, the applicants have asked the Court to find that they have been subjected to degrading treatment in breach of Article 3 of the Convention, and to denial of their rights to – and racial discrimination in access to – education, in breach of Article 14 taken together with Article 2 of Protocol 1.

20 Resources: EU "Race Equality' directive 43/2000 ‑ indirect discrimination as apparently neutral measures, criteria, practices... Thompson: Anti-discrimination Practice: Personal, Cultural, Structural levels Arshad et all: three models of approach towards minority children- Assimilation, Multiculturalism, Equity and Rights (Roma viewed as a problem, not the school system, no anti- discrimination legislation) Video on Jane Eliot (Class Divided or Blue Eyed) discrimination based on eye colour Strategy for improving education of Romani Children by Ministry of Edu, 2001 (Strategie pro zlepšení vzdělávání romských dětí, verze 2001)

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22 Racisms – cont. from violent attacks or scapegoating to paternalistic crypto-racist assistance to m. tendency to deny racism (unacceptable) two main meanings: 1) ideology (beliefs) about racial superiority 2) “the whole complex of factors which produce racial discrimination” and sometimes also “those which produce racial disadvantage” Cashmore

23 Racism as ideology 1. the so called “scientific racism of the 19th century”, manifested for example in the publication by Herrnstein, Murray, “popular” racism or “common sense” racism that is based on ethnocentrism, a tendency to believe that one´s own cultural paradigm is universal, neutral and superior to any other culture

24 In other words… Racism 1.denies all difference in the name of universality of the human nature, but unconsciously it takes back this universality to the dominant model; 2. uses the obvious differences to turn them into instruments of domination, exploitation, condemnation, exclusion, or extermination.

25 Racisms- cont. PrejudiceDiscrimination Inequality „Racism, in short, involves (a)stereotypes about difference and inferiority (b)use of power to exclude, discriminate, subjugate“ The Parekh Report, 2000 AttitudesBehaviourStructures

26 Racisms – cont. ExclusionDiscrimination Prejudice

27 Assimilation and Racism (Bauböck) assimilation is possible yesno assimilation is required yescompulsory assimilation racist double-bind nopluralismsegregation

28 assimilationist policies inclusiveness

29 Assimilationist model DIFFERENCEDEFICIT ASSIMILATION COMPENSATORY PROGRAMMES Does the individual fit into the System or ‘Institution’? ASSIMILATION

30 Curriculum (Multiculturalism) model Cultural Effects CULTURES LIFESTYLES ATTITUDES PLURALIST TOLERANCE AND HARMONY Does the organisation of this ‘institution’ recognise Diversity ? PLURALIST

31 Equity/Rights Model Social and Political Effects EQUITY PARTICIPATION ANTIDISCRIMINATORY LIFE CHANCES Are people enabled in this ‘institution’? Do the structures allow for achievement, growth and opportunities? ANTIDISCRIMINATORY


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