Presentation on theme: "Multiculturalism In Western Europe And North America Institute Of Western European Studies, FSV UK Spring 2010 Lecturer: Antonin Mikeš"— Presentation transcript:
Multiculturalism In Western Europe And North America Institute Of Western European Studies, FSV UK Spring 2010 Lecturer: Antonin Mikeš email@example.com MM202 Lecture 3 Racism(s) & discrimination
Related topics/concepts Positives Social Justice Equity Equal opportunity Inclusion Human rights Human dignity Equality Freedom Negatives No justice Bias, discrimination No opportunity Exclusion Differential treatment Degradation Humiliation Partiality Slavery, Subjugation
What is Racism? 2 min, to come up with a definition.
Racism defined…. “Racism is an ideology that gives expression to myths about other racial and ethnic groups, that devalues and renders inferior those groups, that reflects and is perpetuated by deeply rooted historical, social, cultural and power inequalities in society.” Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1998, Australia
Racism & other -isms sexism, disableism, ageism, homophobia Neil Thompson Racism can be defined as an attitude (ideology) or action (behaviour) that disadvantages individuals or groups on the basis of their “racial” inferiority, mainly by means of limiting their access to scarce resources. Racial difference or racial inferiority is often perceived or constructed in terms of different culture, ethnicity, religion, language, etc.
Racism as ideology 1. the so called “scientific racism of the 19th century”, manifested for example in the publication by Herrnstein, Murray, 1995 2. “popular” racism or “common sense” racism that is based on ethnocentrism, a tendency to believe that one's own cultural paradigm is universal, neutral and superior to any other culture
In other words… Racism 1.Denies all difference in the name of universality of the human nature, but unconsciously it takes back this universality to the dominant model; 2. uses the obvious differences to turn them into instruments of domination, exploitation, condemnation, exclusion, or extermination.
Explanations of racism: 1. Psychological ”Some people are like that” Lack of knowledge, ignorance „To know is to love“ Intergroup relations ”Birds of a feather” 1. Individuals are racists because the structures, practices, and values of our society are racist. ”Its the system”
Racisms – cont. from violent attacks or scapegoating to paternalistic crypto-racist assistance to m. tendency to deny racism (unacceptable) two main meanings: 1) ideology (beliefs) about racial superiority 2) “the whole complex of factors which produce racial discrimination” and sometimes also “those which produce racial disadvantage” Cashmore
Racisms- cont. PrejudiceDiscrimination Inequality „Racism, in short, involves (a)stereotypes about difference and inferiority (b)use of power to exclude, discriminate, subjugate“ The Parekh Report, 2000 AttitudesBehaviorStructures
What countries have done Differing countries have followed differing methods to ‘include’ different groups. Assimilation Cultural pluralism Segregation Inclusion Pluralism
Assimilation and Racism (Bauböck) assimilation is possible yesno assimilation is required yescompulsory assimilation France? racist double-bind Germany? noPluralism Canada? Segregation South Africa? In the past
Differing Models Assimilationist model Assimilation Inclusion Curriculum (Multiculturalism) model Pluralism Equity/Rights Model Ant discriminatory
Assimilationist model DIFFERENCEDEFICIT COMPENSATORY PROGRAMMES Does the individual fit into the System or ‘Institution’? ASSIMILATION
Curriculum (Multiculturalism) model Cultural Effects CULTURES LIFESTYLES ATTITUDES TOLERANCE AND HARMONY Does the organisation of this ‘institution’ recognise Diversity ? PLURALIST
Equity/Rights Model Social and Political Effects EQUITY PARTICIPATION LIFE CHANCES Are people enabled in this ‘institution’? Do the structures allow for achievement, growth and opportunities? ANTIDISCRIMINATORY
Solutions to Racism… What are some solutions to racism? Discrimination? Is there a simple answer? People hold prejudices, do you? Can you come up with some solutions?