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Papermaking 5/2/2015 1. A Brief History of Papermaking

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1 Papermaking 5/2/2015 1

2 A Brief History of Papermaking According to Dard Hunter, the great paper historian, the progress of the human race may be divided into three fundamental stages of development: Speaking, Drawing, and Printing. As interesting and important as the first is, it is the second (in the form of calligraphy) and the third which concern us in these pages; and while printing has been done on other materials, it is paper as a printing surface which was responsible for the rapid spread of knowledge following Johann Gutenberg's pioneering efforts with movable type. Paper is defined by Noah Webster as "a substance made in the form of thin sheets or leaves from rags, straw, bark, wood, or other fibrous material, for various uses." Hunter qualifies that, feeling that true paper "must be made from fibre that has been macerated until each individual filament is a separate unit; the fibres intermixed with water, and by the use of a sieve-like screen, the fibres lifted from the water in the form of a thin stratum, the water draining through the small openings of the screen, leaving a sheet of matted fibre upon the screen's surface. This thin layer of intertwined fibre is paper." 5/2/2015 2

3 The date usually given for the actual invention of paper is 105 AD, but experiments in papermaking from disintegrated fibre probably extended over a long period before the process was brought to any degree of perfection and publicly announced. In that year the invention was officially reported to the Emperor by the eunuch Ts'ai Lun, and his name is associated with the invention, although he may have been a court official who became the patron of the discovery. In any case, the Chinese were able to keep a monopoly on the fabrication of paper for over 500 years. 5/2/2015 3

4 While papermaking went on throughout the Chinese Empire, including Korea, the secret eventually spread to Japan, and later spread slowly across central Asia and Persia by way of the caravan routes, reaching Samarkand about 750 AD. After another 400 years, the first papermaking mill in Europe was set up in Spain by the Moors in the 12th century. By the mid- 15th, paper was made in all the principal countries of Western Europe, just in time to supply the needs of the newly-developed printing press. This image shows contemporary paper- and printmaker Lin Hsin Hsin at a workshop in Japan.Lin Hsin 5/2/2015 4

5 The finest handmade papers are made from pure rag pulp, usually linen and cotton, which are washed, boiled and beaten to macerate the fibres. These fibres are then suspended in water where they can be lifted out by the papermaker using a mould and deckle. The mould is such an important tool to the papermaker that Hunter devotes an entire chapter (see Bibliography) to describing their development and differences around the world. Essentially, a mould is a screen of some sort, supported by a frame, which allows the surplus water to drain after dipping the fibres from the vat. A deckle is another frame on top of the mould which keeps the fibres from washing over the edges. Since it is a separate piece, some of the thin pulp inevitably flows under the deckle causing the slightly ragged edges known as deckles.Bibliography As a result of the demand for books, and paper to print them on, following the invention of the printing press, the supply of good-quality rags began to dry up and papermakers began to search for new papermaking fibres (ironically, the earliest papers were made from tree bark, hemp, and other plant fibres, as well as from fabric trimmings). Shown here is a spread from a book by Jacob Christian Schäffer, published in Amsterdam in 1770, one of a series of six in which he outlined his research into rag substitutes, including the use of moss, a sample of which is also shown (both from the Koninklijke Bibliotheek).Koninklijke Bibliotheek 5/2/2015 5

6 Another problem to be solved was the speed with which paper could be made. The first papermaking machine was invented in France in the late 1700s by Nicholas Louis Robert and later developed in England by Henry Fourdrinier in the early 1800s. By mid- century, it was discovered in Germany that wood pulp could be used to make paper, but it took two more discoveries, soda-ash and sulphite treatments, to make wood pulp practical. For the last 100 years, wood pulp has been the basis for the majority of western paper, and as we all know, the paper changes colour, turns brittle, and falls apart in a decidedly short time. Fortunately, through the concerned efforts of contemporary archivists, conservators, and scientists, papers are now being made which are inherently more stable and which satisfy the need for economy. Artist papermakers and private printers however, continue to insist on cotton and linen fibres for quality papers. conservators Check out the links page for far more info on papermaking.links Samples may also be seen on The Art of the Book '98 and The Art of the Book '03 exhibitions' papermaking pages.The Art of the Book '98 The Art of the Book '03 5/2/2015 6

7 Project Ideas Paper boxes folding templates Cover for sketchbook /journals Cards Envelopes Landscape dipping and stenciling Bookmarks Cover Origami sculpture Make paper for drawing and painting surface Watermarks Paper casting Collage Pulp painting (slides 8 - 9 ) Sculptural Vessels (slides 10 - 12) Relief Sculptures (slides 13 - 14 ) Wall Hangings (slides 15 - 16 ) Embossing (slides 17 - 18 ) Printing on handmade paper 5/2/2015 7

8 Susan Olson’s Paper Pulp Paintings 5/2/2015 8

9 9

10 Sculptural Vessels – Leandrea Spangler 5/2/2015 10

11 5/2/2015 11

12 Spangler creates an armature, woven from reed, lashed bamboo and/or wire, as the bones for her contemporary basketry. Highly textured handmade paper of black denim creates the skin. The paper exoskeleton is sealed and finished with layers and layers of color. These sculptural vessels are shown across the country at invitational and juried exhibitions. About her work, Leandra says: I am intrigued by the way light falls on a surface creating highlights and subtle variations of shadow. To create interesting variations on the paper surface, I press found objects into newly formed sheets of (cotton water leaf) handmade paper. These vessels: simple reed and paper structures are often misidentified as metal, ceramic or stone. Viewers are intrigued by the visual and physical paradox: the perception of weight and mass and the reality of paper and reed. 5/2/2015 12

13 Relief Sculpture – Karen Davidson - 5/2/2015 13

14 For 30 years Karen has been fascinated by images created on handformed (or handcast) paper. "Paper, is both substrate and sculpture. I draw, paint, printmake, and collage exclusively using my own, handmade paper. I make bas-relied and three-dimensional sculpture”. The images are consciously conceived from inside/out as though the fibers themselves dictated the outcome. Most of her inspirations comes from Polynesia and Hawaii. Present in her work are the images of other places she visited; Europe, Asia, Australia, Indonesia and Africa. The landscapes reflect old villages and rich cultures. Their myths and stories often find their way into her work. She uses 100% ph neutral cotton and other natural fibers. The paper pulp undergoes many transformations, vacuum formed and embossed it becomes a bas-relief or a freestanding sculpture. Grounds are made from claybody and pigments (like lapis lazuli, colored clay gessos, lotus root) and are applied to the top of the surface of the work. 5/2/2015 14

15 Wall Hangings by Carol Farrow 5/2/2015 15

16 5/2/2015 16 "Carol Farrow's wallhanging 'paperworks' are created with hand made papers, painted and waxed. The medium creates an almost sculptural quality, tactile and textural, whilst her color flows across the pieces, or series of pieces, sometimes intense, merging and diffusing into softer tones and hues." Paper in its wet state can be cast or moulded to record a surface: it can be torn, cut and reassembled or embedded with other papers or objects. During its formation, it can take on any texture, thickness, shape, size, color, porosity; it can be opaque or translucent, soft or hard, smooth or rough. The process of working with paper can be simple or complex but the basic operation of forming paper from fibers, which as separate elements come together into a structure, is fundamental to the artist working in this medium. The process allows for manipulation and control but also surprise at all stages. Most importantly it invites change and transformation

17 Embossing Using several layers 5/2/2015 17

18 5/2/2015 18

19 Links Atelier Oto OtoAtelier Oto Oto -Washi, Japanese Paper Shop Awagami Factory Washi Babcock, John, hand made paper Botanical PaperWorks handmade paper and invitations Castle Papers & Press of Brian Queen in Calgary Deckled Edge, The, handmake paper, bookbinding, printing by Judith Rudoler D.H.Productions, DHP is a hand papermaking and binding studio in the Hudson Valley that specializes in plant fiber papers and it uses its own paper exclusively Dieu Donné Papermill, a not-for-profit papermill located in the Soho area of New York City Fibre Space site of the International Paper Historians, with info on the organization; the history of paper, watermarks, etcFreyer's, Dieter, Buttenpapier (handmade paper) site in German and English: history, museums, instructions, producers, glossary, misc, and links Friends of Dard Hunter history, news, etc, about the FDH. Griffen Mill quality papers handmade in the UK Awagami Factory Babcock, John Botanical PaperWorks Castle Papers & Press Deckled Edge, The D.H.Productions Dieu Donné Papermill Fibre SpaceFreyer's, Dieter, Buttenpapier (handmade paper) site Friends of Dard Hunter Griffen Mill Kaar, Joanne B Kaar, Joanne B, papermaking and bookbinding Keene, Susan Warner, paper and textile artist Keene, Susan Warner 5/2/2015 19

20 Magnolia EditionsMagnolia Editions, papermaking and papermaking resources Paper Page, Welcome to The, Artisan Paper and Stationery! Paper, Papermaking, and Paper Artists, a 'Print Australia' list. Paper Project, The with scanning laser otographs of papers by Gene Valentine Paper Road Tibet, dedicated to preserving the history of and revitalizing papermaking in Tibet Papermakers of Victoria Inc. - Papermaking with Hawaiian plants Papermaking by Elizabeth Nevins, of The Briar Press Paper, Cardstock, Clip Art and other bookcraft items and simple plans Papertrail, The, is Canada's foremost supplier of materials and equipment for handmade paper PaperWeb PaperWEIGHT, a UK-based group that focuses on paper as an art form Paperwright, The Hand Papermaking Supplies Papyri Pages Guide to Paper, Papermaking, and the History of Paper Prairie Paper, an introduction to papermaking for grades 5 to 10, by Douglas Jones Pyramid Atlantic, an artist-centered community which explores the arts of hand papermaking, printmaking, and artists' books Redstick's Paper Arts papermaking and decorating Paper Page Paper, Papermaking, and Paper Artists Paper Project, The Paper Road Tibet Papermakers of Victoria Inc.Papermaking with Hawaiian plants Papermaking by Elizabeth Nevins Papertrail, The PaperWeb PaperWEIGHT Paperwright, The Papyri Pages Prairie Paper Pyramid Atlantic Redstick's Paper Arts 5/2/2015 20

21 Robert C. Williams, The, American Museum of papermaking Ruscombe Paper MillRobert C. Williams, The, American Museum of papermaking Ruscombe Paper Mill, Margaux, France Seastone Papers on Martha's Vineyard, with info on workshops and process. Stiffe, Gail, Hands On Paper, with directions for making paper from plants Teaching Handpapermaking: A Classroom Guide, announcing a book from Zpaper Press Twinrocker Paper, history of the mill, product list, and a description of papermaking Seastone PapersStiffe, Gail, Hands On Paper Teaching Handpapermaking: A Classroom Guide Twinrocker Paper 5/2/2015 21 Paper Decoration Bibliography of Marbling Books on Peter Verheyen's website Colophon Book Arts Supply marbling supplies, with an online catalogue Dharma Trading Co., marbling supplies Hamburger Buntpapier, traditional European decorated paper by Susanne Krause Historical Marbled Papers conservator Cor Knops is looking for marblers who can recreate these samples John Ang Cheng Siew Paper Marbling, including a page of paper marbling links International Marblers Gathering, photos from the event held Sept 4-8th 2002, at Arrowmont School of Arts and Crafts, Gatlinburg, Tennessee Kristoferson Studio, paste and itajime papers by Susan KristofersonLapierre, Bibliography of Marbling Books Colophon Book Arts Supply Dharma Trading Co. Hamburger Buntpapier Historical Marbled Papers John Ang Cheng Siew International Marblers Gathering Kristoferson StudioLapierre,

22 LucieLucie, marbler Maiwa marbling supplies, online store Marbled Arts of Florence (Italy), marbled paper and objects Marbling for Paper and Fabric Galen Berry, supplies and information Marblitaly Designs, handmade marbled papers Nevins, Iris, Marbled Paper and supplies Palowoda, Marie, marbled art works Paola Kathuria Marbling Gallery Paper Passions, marbled paper and products Parissi, Evi, of Greece, Marbling by Traditional Turkish Marbling, a web site prepared by Alparslan Babaoglu Turkish Art of Marbling (Ebru) Valet, Alain, marbling Maiwa Marbled Arts of Florence (Italy) Marbling for Paper and FabricMarblitaly Designs Nevins, Iris, Marbled Paper Palowoda, Marie Paola Kathuria Paper Passions Parissi, Evi, Traditional Turkish Marbling Turkish Art of Marbling (Ebru) Valet, Alain 5/2/2015 22

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