Presentation on theme: "Paper and Board Year 10 GCSE Graphic Products. Aims To understand the processes of making paper from wood pulp To understand that paper and board is available."— Presentation transcript:
Paper and Board Year 10 GCSE Graphic Products
Aims To understand the processes of making paper from wood pulp To understand that paper and board is available in a range of weights, sizes and finishes.
The production of wood pulp Paper and board is the most useful material for the production of graphic products. Wood is the primary raw material for the manufacture of paper and board because it is relatively cheap and widely available. Other materials that can be used include cotton, hemp and straw which produce paper with different properties.
The production of wood pulp Fibres must be separated to form a mass of individual fibres called wood pulp This process is carried out at a pulp mill. Mechanical pulping is used to produce newsprint. Chemical pulping produces printing and writing paper. The mechanical and chemical production of wood pulp
The production of wood pulp Quality papers require pulp that is bright white and will not discolour with age. Pulp is bleached with chlorine. Packaging grades (such as corrugated board) are left unbleached. how corrugated board boxes made (5 mins) (paper from recycled corrugated board) (3) paper making process (1.37)
Machine-made paper This is the most commonly used paper It is used for printing and art presentation work It is widely available and comes in lots of colours, sizes and finishes.
Machine-made paper This is a continuous process using Fourdrinier machines Wood pulp goes in at one end and passes through a series of rollers, pressers and dryers until eventually a roll of paper comes out of the other end. The production of paper using a Fourdrinier machine
Machine-made paper During this process the opacity, texture, weight and colour of the paper can be determined. The process of calendering increases the smoothness and gloss of the paper. The paper is passed through a series of steel calender rollers. The more calenders, the higher the gloss.
Texture and colour Laid paper is produced by laying rolls of wet paper on a mesh of horizontal and vertical wires. When the paper dries out, the striped impressions are left. Woven paper is produced in a very similar way.
Texture and colour A watermark can be added to paper in order to create a highly individual, quality effect. A dandy roll of the Fourdrinier machine makes the paper thinner in that shape. When it is held up to the light, more light can be passed through it than the rest of the paper.
Texture and colour The finish on the paper refers to the way its surface has been treated. The roughest finish is called antique and is an uncoated paper. Coated papers include egg-shell and machine finish (MF) papers. Coloured dyes are added to the wood pulp during the production of paper.
Hand-made paper This is a slow and expensive processes. Used for very high quality applications such as letter heads, limited edition book and artist’s paper where unique texture and patterning are important. A range of hand-made papers
Weight Paper is available in different thicknesses or weight which is measured in grams per square metre (gsm). Most paper you use is 80 gsm which is fairly thin. Card and board are measured in microns. Mounting board may be as dense as a 1000 microns which is pretty thick! SheetsMicrons
When does paper become board? Usually when the paper is greater than 220 gsm and made from more than one ply (sheet). The thickness of card and board can measured by the number of plys or sheets.
Common sizes Paper and board are available in metric ‘A’ sizes. We most commonly use A4 and A3 in school. There are many sizes including ‘B’ and old imperial measurements. Common ‘A’ sizes of paper and board
Choosing paper and board The right paper must satisfy the following demands: The design requirements i.e. surface finish, colour, size and weight The demands of the printing process or surface decoration Economic considerations (price)
Choosing paper and board Grid papers Used as a layout sheet to aid drawing ideas: squared, isometric and perspective. Inkjet papers Smooth finished copier paper can be used for black and white printing but specifically designed paper is available for colour printing.
Choosing paper and board Card and board Used for drawings, writing, photocopying and printing Also used for more creative uses with speciality materials
Choosing paper and board Carton-board Usually used for retail packaging. Must be suitable for high quality, high speed printing and for cutting, creasing and gluing using very high speed automated packaging equipment. Advantages include: Excellent print quantity Excellent protection in structural packaging nets Relatively cheap to produce and process Can be recycled.
Practice exam questions Packaging is an important part of a product. a) Complete the table by: i) naming three or more packaging materials ii) providing a specific example for the use of the named material (6 marks) Packaging materials Example of packaging Paper and boardsEaster egg boxes
Practice exam questions b)Corrugated card and expanded polystyrene are often used to package electrical products. For each of these materials describe its application and characteristics that makes it useful for this purpose. (6 marks) b)Solid board is another material used for packaging electrical products. Give two advantages and one disadvantage of its use instead of corrugated card (3 marks)