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1.3 Use Midpoint and Distance Formulas

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Objectives: Find the midpoint of a segment. Find the midpoint of a segment. Find the distance between two points using the distance formula and Pythagorean’s Theorem. Find the distance between two points using the distance formula and Pythagorean’s Theorem.

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Midpoint of a Segment The midpoint of a segment is the point halfway between the endpoints of the segment. If X is the midpoint of AB, then AX XB. The midpoint of a segment is the point halfway between the endpoints of the segment. If X is the midpoint of AB, then AX XB. To find the midpoint of a segment on a number line find ½ of the sum of the coordinates of the two endpoints. To find the midpoint of a segment on a number line find ½ of the sum of the coordinates of the two endpoints. a + b 2

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Segment Bisector A segment bisector is a point, ray, line, line segment, or plane that intersects the segment at its midpoint. A segment bisector is a point, ray, line, line segment, or plane that intersects the segment at its midpoint.

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The coordinates of J and K are –12 and 16. Answer: 2 Simplify. The coordinates on a number line of J and K are –12 and 16, respectively. Find the coordinate of the midpoint of. Let M be the midpoint of. Example 1:

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Multiple-Choice Test Item What is the measure of if Q is the midpoint of ? A B 4C D 9 Example 2:

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Read the Test Item Solve the Test Item Because Q is the midpoint, you know that. Use this equation and the algebraic measures to find a value for x. You know that Q is the midpoint of, and the figure gives algebraic measures for and. You are asked to find the measure of. Example 2:

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Definition of midpoint Distributive Property Subtract 1 from each side. Add 3x to each side. Divide each side by 10. Example 2:

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Answer: D Original measure Simplify. Now substitute for x in the expression for PR. Example 2:

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Answer: D Multiple-Choice Test Item What is the measure of if B is the midpoint of ? A 1B 3C 5D 10 Your Turn:

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Midpoint of a Segment If the segment is on a coordinate plane, we must use the midpoint formula for coordinate planes which states given a segment with endpoints (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ) the midpoint is… If the segment is on a coordinate plane, we must use the midpoint formula for coordinate planes which states given a segment with endpoints (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ) the midpoint is… M ( x 1 + x 2, y 1 + y 2 ) 2 2 2 2

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Let G be and H be. Answer: (–3, 3) Find the coordinates of M, the midpoint of, for G(8, –6) and H(–14, 12). Example 3: -

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a.The coordinates on a number line of Y and O are 7 and –15, respectively. Find the coordinate of the midpoint of. b.Find the coordinates of the midpoint of for X(–2, 3) and Y(–8, –9). Answer: (–5, –3) Answer: –4 Your Turn:

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More About Midpoints You can also find the coordinates of an endpoint of a segment if you know the coordinates of the other endpoint and the midpoint. You can also find the coordinates of an endpoint of a segment if you know the coordinates of the other endpoint and the midpoint.

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Let F be in the Midpoint Formula. Find the coordinates of D if E(–6, 4) is the midpoint of and F has coordinates (–5, –3). Write two equations to find the coordinates of D. Example 4:

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Solve each equation. Answer: The coordinates of D are (–7, 11). Multiply each side by 2. Add 5 to each side. Multiply each side by 2. Add 3 to each side. Example 4:

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Answer: (17, –11) Find the coordinates of R if N(8, –3) is the midpoint of and S has coordinates (–1, 5). Your Turn:

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Distance Between Two Points In previous sections we learned that whenever you connect two points you create a segment. In previous sections we learned that whenever you connect two points you create a segment. We also learned every segment has a measure. We also learned every segment has a measure. The distance between two points, or the measure of a segment, is determined by the number of units between the two points. The distance between two points, or the measure of a segment, is determined by the number of units between the two points.

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Distance Formula on a Number Line If a segment is on a number line, we simply find its length by using the Distance Formula which states the distance between two points is the absolute value of the difference of the values of the two points. If a segment is on a number line, we simply find its length by using the Distance Formula which states the distance between two points is the absolute value of the difference of the values of the two points. | A – B | = | B – A | = Distance

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Use the number line to find QR. The coordinates of Q and R are –6 and –3. Answer: 3 Distance Formula Simplify. Example 5:

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Use the number line to find AX. Answer: 8 Your Turn:

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Distance Formula on a Coordinate Plane Segments may also be drawn on coordinate planes. To find the distance between two points on a coordinate plane with coordinates (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ) we can use this formula: Segments may also be drawn on coordinate planes. To find the distance between two points on a coordinate plane with coordinates (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ) we can use this formula:

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Distance Formula on a Coordinate Plane … or we can use the Pythagorean Theorem. The Pythagorean Theorem simply states that the square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the two legs. a 2 + b 2 = c 2

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Find the distance between E(–4, 1) and F(3, –1). Pythagorean Theorem Method Use the gridlines to form a triangle so you can use the Pythagorean Theorem. Example 6:

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Pythagorean Theorem Simplify. Take the square root of each side. Example 6:

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Distance Formula Method Distance Formula Simplify. Answer: The distance from E to F is units. You can use a calculator to find that is approximately 7.28. Example 6:

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Find the distance between A(–3, 4) and M(1, 2). Answer: Your Turn:

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Assignment: Geometry: Geometry: Pg. 19 - 22 #2 – 28 (1 st Day), #29 – 37, #44 & 47

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