Presentation on theme: "DREAMERS OR CHANCERS: INTERROGATING MIGRANT MICRO- ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESILIENCE IN SPAZA SHOP BUSINESSES, SOWETO, SOUTH AFRICA Simamkele Bokolo and Trynos."— Presentation transcript:
1DREAMERS OR CHANCERS: INTERROGATING MIGRANT MICRO- ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESILIENCE IN SPAZA SHOP BUSINESSES, SOWETO, SOUTH AFRICA Simamkele Bokolo and Trynos Gumbo Africa Institute of South Africa Urban Informality and Migrant Entrepreneurship in Southern African Cities 10 February 2014 Breakwater Lodge, Cape Town
2INTRODUCTIONThe term informal economic sector was coined during the early 1970s after field work research in Ghana by Keith HartThe concept has since then received widespread acknowledgement as an integral part of the global economic developmentIt employs millions of the unemployed populations in the world, providing means of survival to some whilst lifting a significant proportion out of povertySouth Africa has not been an exception, as the country continues experience an upsurge of the informal economic sectorJohannesburg as an economic hub of South Africa has a great number of the country’s population and immigrants that [participate in the informal sector.Townships such as Soweto have high concentrations of immigrants that participate in the informal economic sector.
3PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION World one problem – world of everyday life – The growth of informal businesses, particularly trading is a cause of concern in most South African citiesLack of jobs, poverty, high rural-urban and international migration are chief causesWorld two problem – the world of science – Migrants have largely dominated the informal economic sector within the country’s large cities such as JohannesburgWhy have migrants done very well in South Africa’s informal economy, particularly those operating spaza shops in Soweto, out-playing local informal entrepreneurs.
4RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Case study design was applied Soweto high density and low income township was chosenMixed methods approach was usedQuantitative – Deductive, closed questions and experimentalQualitative – Inductive, open–ended questions and exploratorySampling – Stratification, Random; Purposive and Snowballing sampling techniquesTriangulation – a variety of data collection techniques were use – questionnaires, interviews, observations
9RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONT’D Data AnalysisStatistical use of excel – quantitative dataContent analysis – qualitative dataLimitationsNon co-operationLanguage barrierAbsence of shop ownersArrogance of spaza owners
10THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The study is underpinned by 2 sets of theoriesFirstly, theories informing migration patterns.Neoclassical theory - migration is informed by economic considerations of relative benefits and costs.Secondly, theories informing migrant entrepreneurship in host countriesCultural theory - immigrants in a host country are characterised by cultural features that encourage them to be self-employed.These features could include, dedication to hard work, membership of a strong ethnic community, economical living acceptance of risk, compliance with social value patterns, solidarity and loyalty, and determination towards self-employment.Disadvantage theory - immigrants are disadvantaged in many ways in the host countries that hinders their progress whilst at the same time changing their behaviourThe theory views migrant entrepreneurship as simply an alternative to unemployment rather than as a sign of migrants wanting to succeed in the businesses
12General Characteristics of Spaza Shops in Soweto The spaza shop business in Soweto is largely dominated by migrants, outplaying their local counterparts.This dominance signals the continued entrance of migrants in SA.
13GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAZA SHOPS IN SOWETO CONT’D Migrants are also continuing to enter the spaza shop business of Soweto.
14GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAZA SHOPS IN SOWETO CONT’D
15GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAZA SHOPS IN SOWETO CONT’D
16GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAZA SHOPS IN SOWETO CONT’D
17STRATEGIES USED BY MIGRANTS StrategyExplanationMentorshipHigh reliance on mentorship by relatives.LocationStreet corners to maintain visibility.AdaptationLearn to communicate in local languages.StockingStock to meet demand.SavingMaintain simple lifestyles to save for the business.Small profit, quick returnsAim not to maximise profits at once, e.g. For a loaf of bread a 20cents profit is made.Long operating hoursOperating hours are usually form 6am-9pmSecurityTheir shops have buglers, and operate from buildings rather than makeshift structures.
19STOCKING CONT’D Frequency of stocking Goods stocked Everyday Bread, Cigarettes2-3 days a weekSoft drinks, milk, cheese, chips, sweets, airtime4-5 days a weekYoghurts, modern medicines, spices, stock cubes, soupsWeeklyMaize meal, rice, sugar, tea, coffee2-3 times a weekWashing and cleaning items, hair productsMonthlyBatteries, locks, spirit, polish, matches, toys
20RESILIENCE FACTORS Resilience factor Cause Life skills Informal; self-taughtEnduring hardshipsPerseverance learnt through past experiencesMigration networks/tiesReliance on relatives in times of financial difficultyReligious tiesStrict adherence to their religious beliefs and practices and identify better with one another.AdaptationGood relations forged with customers, suppliers and community members.SavingsMoney is not misused but saved for the business.
21CONTRIBUTIONS BY MIGRANT SPAZA SHOPS ExamplesSales to the suppliersThey buy their stock from SA suppliers such as Cash and Carry, Devland Cash and Carry, Makro Stores, JumboInfrastructural developmentMany are responsible for building the structures that they are operating from.RentalsThey pay rents to their landlords ranging between R1000 and R2500Reduced prices of goodsCustomers are benefitingConvenience to customersProximity to customers and longer trading hours.
23CHALLENGES FACED BY SPAZA SHOP OWNERS Both migrant and local spaza shop owners face a number of challenges in operating their businesses.Migrant spaza shopsLocal spaza shopsHooliganism/harassment from customers and residencesLack of funds to expand businessesTheft and robberiesLabour costsHigh rentalsLack of entrepreneurial skillsResentment from localsNon-strategic location
24CHALLENGES OF MIGRANT SPAZA SHOPS ConcernExplanationHealth concernsShop structures have shared purposes, i.e. business and residential. Unhygienic, sell cheap unhealthy productsEmployment creation concernsThe owners operate their own spaza shops with the assistance of relatives. In cases where they hire they prefer foreign nationals and not locals.Gender imbalance concernsMigrant shops are dominated by males,Poor regulations and monitoringThey do not pay any fees or levies to the city council, e.g. roads or any other.Unfair competitionThe pricing system of migrants is flawed and does not reflect the obtaining prices from the market and this largely suffocates local spaza shops.
26DREAMERSForeigners have managed to penetrate the spaza shop business in Soweto that was traditionally a means of survival for localsThe process of acquiring premises, skills and network developmentsPlacing or locating their spaza shops strategically -Proximity, convenienceFinancing, Marketing and Pricing – business successStocking - a mixture of small and big -responding to demandOperating hours –convenience and customer care and satisfaction
27CHANCERSThey are take advantage of less specific rules and regulations, also absence of clear policies on the operation of spaza shops1. The land use in townships is regulated through Annexure F of the Black Communities Development Act of 1986 which permits trading in residential properties –primary rights2. Spaza shops are not covered by the Informal Trading policy of the City of Johannesburg, even the Metropolitan Trading Company of the city does not concern itself with spaza shop owners.3. Mixed use of premises that is not regulated and monitored – housing and business operations under one roof
28RECOMMENDATIONSLocals could draw some lessons from the strategies employed by migrantsClear separation of use, i.e. business and residential useProper regulation of migrant owned spaza shops by city officialsMigrant spaza shops should be included in policy making.
29CONCLUSIONSThe business strategies employed by migrants in their businesses have obviously given them the urge over local owned businesses.Their success is seen in their resilience even with reports of their shops being looted and robbed very often.Even though some local shop owners view them as a threat to their businesses they have been widely welcomed by customers who benefit from convenient location and reduced prices in migrant spaza shops.
30Historical Context (democratic dispensation, economic liberalisation) Growth of Migrant Micro-entrepreneurshipHistorical Context (democratic dispensation, economic liberalisation)Spatial Context (regional- location of SA within the SSA, central location of JHB in SA, proximity of Soweto to JHB)Structural context (social e.g. black Africans, high population, economic, governance, religious)Institutional Context (laws and regulations e.g. Asylum, primary rights; globalisation)