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Rachel Holder 6 th Period A HISTORY OF EUROPEAN THEATRE.

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Presentation on theme: "Rachel Holder 6 th Period A HISTORY OF EUROPEAN THEATRE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rachel Holder 6 th Period A HISTORY OF EUROPEAN THEATRE

2  Morality plays are religious dramas that taught a lesson along with the story.  The characters usually represented good and evil, and the plot normally involved a struggle for human’s soul.  Late 14 th Century-16 th Century.  Preformed by traveling troupes in the streets.  Became much less popular during the Protestant Reformation.  Most famous is Everyman (which is still preformed today).  The main character, Everyman, is summoned by death. All of his friends (Beauty, Kindred, and Worldly Goods) abandon him, except for Good Deeds.  In 1558, Elizabeth I ascends the throne and bans all religious plays (except in church). MORALITY PLAYS

3  Emerged in Italy around 1560.  First public professional theatre in Italy.  Designed to make the common person laugh.  Slapstick comedy.  Preformed by troupes.  Used stock characters, most of whom wore masks.  Spread through out Europe.  Began to die out around 1776 COMEDIA DELL’ARTE

4 Harlequin Il Capitano Pantalone

5  In 1576, James Burbage builds the first commercial theater just outside of London. It is called “The Theatre.”  Over the next 18 years, three more theaters—The Curtain, The Rose, and The Swan are built.  In 1599, The Theatre is dismantled and moved across the Thames River.  It is rebuilt as The Globe.  The development of commercial theaters meant common people could enjoy drama. Prior to this point, theatre had been for the aristocracy.  Seeing plays became a regular form of entertainment for people of all classes. COMMERCIAL THEATERS IN ENGLAND

6 The Globe The Rose The Curtain

7  Christopher Marlowe was an English dramatist.  His play, Tamburlaine the Great, introduces a blank verse that defines Elizabethan and Jacobean drama.  Edward II is the first play to dramatize English history as a conflict between real characters.  He died shortly before Shakespeare became popular.  His career in drama only lasted 6 years, and did not carry many works. CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE

8 Christopher Marlowe

9  William Shakespeare is often considered the greatest playwright of all time.  His first plays to be preformed were the three parts of Henry VI.  Shortly after, London theatres are closed because of the plague, but his career accelerates afterwards.  He was a part of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, which later granted royal favor by James I and renamed the King’s Men.  Some of his most famous plays are: Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Nights Dream, Othello, and Macbeth.  All together, he wrote 36 plays which were published by two of his colleagues in the First Folio (1623).  Shakespeare’s plays are still widely read and preformed today. SHAKESPEARE


11  17 th Century  Involved melodrama and large gestures  Over-the-top scenery and costumes  Included the restoration period  Had strict guidelines as to how plays were to be written and how actors were to preform.  Important Works:  Le Cid by Pierre Corneille  Tartuffe by Moliere  Andromaque by Jean Racine NEOCLASSICAL THEATRE

12  In 1642, the Puritans close all English theatres.  In 1660, the theatres are reopened and the Restoration Comedy emerges.  The Restoration Comedy refers to the British comedies that were preformed in response to the reopening of the theatres.  They were known for their sexual explicitness, encouraged by Charles II.  This period also saw the first actresses and the first professional woman playwright, Aphra Behn. RESTORATION COMEDY

13  A movement among German playwrights in the 18 th century  Translated as “Storm and Stress”  Focused on Nature, feeling, and individuality  A response to the rationalism of the enlightenment  Important Works:  Götz von Berlichingen mit der eisernen Hand by Goethe- first success  Die Räuber by Friedrich Schiller- last success STURM UND DRANG

14  19 th Century  Dealt with everyday life, and used contemporary settings.  Involved science and human behavior  Social problems were the main subject  A lot of feminist works emerged during this time period.  Important Works:  A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen--- feminist themes; considered the father of realism  Mrs. Warren’s Profession by George Bernand Shaw--- prostitution  Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov REALISM

15 A Doll’s House Mrs. Warren’s Profession Three Sisters

16  Late 19 th to early 20 th century.  Attempted to mimic reality.  There were detailed sets, everyday speech, variety of classes, normal characters and settings, and a lack of divine intervention.  More extreme version of Realism  Important Works:  The Power of Darkness by Leo Tolstoy--- banned in Russia until 1902  The Father by August Strindberg--- misogynistic themes  Therese Raquin by Emile Zola--- "study temperaments and not characters" NATURALISM

17 Therese Raquin The Father

18  Possibly the most famous acting theorist.  Began as an actor, and was sick of seeing mechanical and over acting.  Developed a system to help actors discover their characters  The inspiration for his method came out of the realist and naturalist periods.  Thought acting should be honest instead of over-the-top  His “system” is still widely used today. CONSTANTINE STANISLAVSKI

19  Contrasted with Stanislavski’s method  Bertolt Brecht was the father of it  Thought that Stanislavski was providing an escape for the audience  The audiences of Epic Theatre performances always knew they were watching a play.  Characters often break the “forth wall” EPIC THEATRE

20  Early 20 th century  Began in Germany  Deal with spiritual awakening and suffering  A popular theme was the conflict between bourgeoisie values and established authority.  Not focused on reality, but emotions.  Important Works:  Murderer, the Hope of Women by Oskar Kokoschka--- first expressionistic play  The Beggar by Reinhard Sorge--- Bourgeoisie vs. government  Parricide by Arnolt Bronnen EXPRESSIONISM Parricide

21  A cultural movement that peaked around 1916-1922.  Involved the visual arts, not just theatre  Anti-war, anti- bourgeoisie, and anarchist.  Believed the ideology of the bourgeoisie had started WWI.  Some described it as “anti-art” because it was not aesthetically pleasing.  Important Works:  The Gas Heart and Handkerchief of Clouds(“ironic tragedy”) by Tristan Tzara DADAISM The Gas Heart

22  Began in 1920’s  Paris was the center of the movement  Developed out of Dadaism  Seeks to surprise the audience by using unexpected juxtapositions.  Important works:  Les Mamelles de Tiresias by Guillaume Apollinaire--- first surrealist play  When Five Years Pass by Frederico Garcia Lorca  The Mysteries of Love by Roger Vitrac SURREALISM Les Mamelles de Tirestas

23  Came about because of World War II  Embodied meaninglessness of human existence  Abandoned traditional dramatic devices  Sought to convey the feelings of humans during and after the war.  Important Works:  Bald Soprano by Eugene Ionesco  Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett THEATRE OF THE ABSURD

24  Similar to the Theatre of the Absurd  Sought to “assault the audience with movement and sound”  Brought about an instinctive, rather than intellectual, reaction.  Again, this was in response to the violence of WWII  Important Works:  Look Back in Anger by John Osborne  Marat/Sade by Peter Weiss- class struggles THEATRE OF CRUELTY Marat/Sade

25  Mid 20 th century  Reaction to modernism  There is no definite truth  Encourages the audience to reach their own interpretation  Raises questions instead of supplying answers.  Important Works:  Hamletmachine by Heiner Muller--- not a conventional plot  4.48 Psychosis by Sarah Kane--- No characters  A Mouthful of Birds by Cheryl Churchill--- No scenes, just vignettes. POSTMODERNISM A Mouthful of Birds

26  Theatre after World War II took included many different styles from previous centuries.  Experimental theatre emerged in the 1960’s, such as the Polish Laboratory Theatre  The theme of many dramatic works focused on issues at the time  Popular themes included: women’s rights and gay liberation  Important Works:  Top Girls by Cheryl Churchill  Bent by Martin Sherman  Mean Tears by Peter Gill OTHER THEATRE AFTER WWII

27  An English composer  He’s won seven Tony Awards, three Grammy Awards, an Academy Award, a Golden Globe award, and many others.  Some of his famous works include  Cats  The Phantom of the Opera ANDREW LLOYD WEBBER

28 Cats Phantom of the Opera

29                              PICTURE SOURCES

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