Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) Firstly, Hitler proclaimed that he intended to overturn the “ unjust system” of Treaties of Versailles and Locarno – but ONLY by legal means. As leaders showed their willingness to compromise he increased his demands and finally began attacking his neighbors. To camouflage his actions he proclaimed his peaceful intentions to the entire world.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) In March 1935 Hitler established a general military draft, meanwhile other countries started to realize the danger. Britain adopted a policy of appeasement, granting Hitler everything he wanted in order to avoid war. Britain underestimated Germany. They believed that Germany is “a Western bulwark against Communism”.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) In October 1933 Hitler went out of the League of Nations He moved to incorporate independent Austria into a greater Germany Austrian Nazis climaxed an attempted overthrow by murdering the Austrian chancellor in July 1934, but were unable to take part because of Mussolini, who massed his troops on Brenner Pas and threatened to fight.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) In March 1935 Hitler established a general military draft and declared “unjust system” of Treaties of Versailles null and void. Only now the leaders of the other countries began to understand the danger. France, Italy and Great Britain strongly protested against future aggressive actions, but the united front against Hitler quickly collapsed.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) Britain adopted a policy of appeasement, granting Hitler everything he could want in order to avoid war. In June 1935 Anglo-German agreement was created, ipso facto breaking Germany’s isolation. In March 1936 Hitler suddenly marched into Rhineland, violating the police of Treaties.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) Most of the powerful conservatives in Britain underestimated Hitler, believing that Hitler can be a weapon against the Soviet Communism. A leading member Britain’s government personally told Hitler in November 1937 that it was his conviction that Hitler “ not only had accomplished great things in Germany itself, but that through the total destruction of Communism in his own country…Germany rightly had to be considered as a Western bulwark against Communism”
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (24 December 1925 – 25 July 1943) Italian politician, one of the founders of Italian fascism
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) In 1935 Mussolini decided that imperial expansion was needed to revitalize Italian fascism. So, in 1935 he attacked the independent African kingdom of Ethiopia. In spite of criticism of Mussolini’s actions Germany and Italy agreed on close cooperation, the so-called Rome-Berlin Axis. Japan, which had been expanding into Manchuria since 1931 soon joined the Axis alliance.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) At the same time, Germany and Italy intervened in the long, complicated Spanish civil war, where they helped General Francisco Franco fascist movement to defeat republican Spain.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) In late 1937 Hitler got an “unshakable decision” to crush Austria and Czechoslovakia. By threatening Austria with invasion, Hitler forced the Austrian chancellor in March 1938 to put local Nazis in control of the government. The next day, German armies moved in unopposed, and Austria became two more provinces of Greater Germany.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) Simultaneously, Hitler demanded that the German-speaking minority of the province of Czechoslovakia is to be turned over to Germany. France had been Czechoslovakia’s ally since 1924 and if France fought, The Soviet Union promised to help. Contradicting his territory assurances, Hitler ordered his armies to occupy Czech lands in 1939.
Aggresion and Appeasement (1933-1939) In August 1939 Hitler and Stalin signed a ten-year Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact. On September 1, 1939 German armies and warplanes smashed into Poland from three sides. Two days later, as promised, Britain and France declared war to Germany. The Second World War begun.
World War II. Hitler’s empire. (1939-1942) Using planes, tanks, and trucks in the first example of a blitzkrieg, ot “lightning war”, Hitler’s armies crushed Poland in four weeks. By July 1940, Hitler ruled practically all of western continental Europe; Italy was an ally, and the Soviet Union and Spain were friendly neutrals.
World War II. Hitler’s empire. (1939-1942) Only Britain, led by Winston Churchill left unconquered, so Germany sought to gain control of the air, the necessary step toward the invasion. The Battle of Britain occurred, rivals were fighting high in the sky; both countries had huge losses. Hitler realized that there was no immediate invasion of Britain.
World War II. Hitler’s empire. (1939-1942) In June 1941 German armies suddenly attacked the Soviet Union along a vast front.
World War II. Hitler’s empire. (1939-1942) Hitler ruled over a vast European Empire from Moscow to the English Channel. Nazi all over the sieged and defeated countries tried to establish the so called “New Order” based on the guiding principle of the Nazi totalitarianism: racial imperialism.
New Order 1. Nordic peoples (Dutch, Norwegians, Danes) received preferential treatment because they belonged to the “master race”, the Germans. 2. The French, and “inferior Latin people, occupied a middle position. They were heavily taxed to support the Nazi, but were still tolerated as a race. 3. Slavs were treated with harsh hatred as “subhumans”. Polish workers were sent to Germany, where conditions of slave labor were so harsh that four out of five Soviet prisoners did not survive. 4. Finally, the Nazi state condemned all European Jews to extermination, along with many Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and the captured communists. Nazi deported all the Jews to Poland, where those people were concentrated in ghettos, compelled to wear a star, and turned them into slave laborers.
Heinrich Himmler was Reichsfuhrer of the SS, a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party.
The Grand Alliance 1. Roosevelt accepted Churchill’s contention that the US should concentrate first on defeating Hitler. 2. Americans and the British put immediate military need first. 3. “Unconditional surrender” of Germany and Japan – this policy denied Hitler to divide his foes.
Description: Second world war Europe Source: Own animation, based on the maps of the University of Texas Libraries. Author: San Jose, 19. July 2005 RED - Western Allies and GREEN- USSR since 1941 BLUE - Axis and Vichy France WHITE - neutral
July 1942 Germans drive to Stalingrad, occupy most of the city. November 1942 counteraction of Soviet armies. Hitler suffering a catastrophic defeat. ( from 300,000 men to 123,000) Summer 1943 better-equipped Soviet armies took the offensive and began moving forward. Late 1942, the tide also turned in the Pacific and in North Africa. May 1942 – the Battle of the Coral Sea August 1942 American marines attacked Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. May 1942 combined German and Italian armies were defeated by British forces at the Battle of El Alamein. Italian government publicly accepted unconditional surrender in September 1943. Mussolini was rescued and put into the puppet government. German armies seized Rome and all of the northern Italy. Fighting continued in Italy. On June 6, 1944 American and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, in history’s greatest naval invasion. In 100 days more than 2 million people pushed forward and broke through German lines. The Soviets reached the outskirts of Warsaw by August 1944. For the next six months they moved into Romania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. In January 1945 Red army moved westward through Poland and on April 26 it met American forces on the Elbe River. The Allies had closed their vise on Nazi Germany and overrun Europe. As Soviet forces fought their way into Berlin Hitler committed suicide in his bunker, and on May 7 the remaining German commanders capitulated. Three months later, the US dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. On August 14, 1945 he Japanese announced their surrender. Finally, the Second World War which had claimed the lives of more than 50 milllion soldiers and civilians, was over.