Presentation on theme: "19.2 WWII HAD BEGUN!. WORLD WAR II HAD BEGUN! 2. War in Europe In two weeks, Hitler had taken Poland and Stalin had forced Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia."— Presentation transcript:
19.2 WWII HAD BEGUN!
WORLD WAR II HAD BEGUN! 2. War in Europe In two weeks, Hitler had taken Poland and Stalin had forced Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia to accept Soviet military bases. Stalin tried to force the same on Finland (military bases) /RESULT/ War broke out. The Finns were able to hold out until March; then they surrendered. April 9, 1940: The Germans sailed into Copenhagen. They met minor resistance, and in a matter of hours and took control of Denmark. The same morning German forces landed in Norway. Within hours the Germans had seized all of Norway’s major cities and taken control of Norway. /HOWEVER/ The invasion of Norway was costly to the Germans. lost 10 of 20 destroyers lost 3 of 8 cruisers /BUT/ Hitler now had an outlet to the Atlantic Ocean.
May 10, 1940: King George VI makes Winston Churchill Prime Minister of Great Britain. The Fall of France 1940; The Japanese demanded the right to exploit economic resources in French Indochina the United States responded by imposing economic sanctions or restrictions on trade that are intended to enforce international law, unless Japan withdrew to its borders of 1931) April 9, 1940: War began along the Maginot Line. The maginot line very impressive. However had one flaw – a 50-mile gap in the Ardennes (Malmedy Massacre) Meanwhile, Germany attacked Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Belgium.
May 10, 1940: German troops parachuted into the Netherlands. First large-scale airborne attack in history Caught the Dutch by surprise Five days later the Dutch surrendered. May 10, 1940: Britain and France moved their best troops into Belgium. - The Germans attacked Belgium. Belgian forces did not hold out as long as had been expected. Germans trapped the Belgian, British, and French forces in NW corner of France. May 26, 1940: British admiralty began a desperate rescue operation at Dunkirk. over a period of nine days the hastily assembled fleet rescued the Allies. June 14, 1940: Germans entered Paris, France. - one week later France had signed an armistice with Germany. Terms of the Armistice Germans occupied all of Northern France and the Atlantic coastline to the Spanish border. In southern France, the Nazis set up a puppet government under Petain.
Battle of Britain August 1940: Luftwaffe began bombing the southern coast of Britain. damaged 4 aircraft factories and five Royal Air Force airfields /HOWEVER/ British Hurricanes and Spitfires shot down 75 German planes. / RESULT / Luftwaffe changed tactics - For 57 consecutive nights, the Luftwaffe pounded London in its great blitz. Devastation of London was enormous. - killed and injured thousands of civilians - damaged: light, power, and gas lines - destroyed buildings, roads, and railways / HOWEVER/ Bombings did not break the British morale. - The Lufwaffe never gained air supremacy over Britain. - RAF downed more then 1,700 German aircraft during the Battle of Britain and blocked Hitler’s invasion.
Anglo- American Cooperation The Untied States had expressed its determination to remain neutral throughout the early part of the war. 1937: Neutrality Acts: prohibited arms shipments, loans, and credit to belligerent nations. 1940: Churchill appealed to the United States for help. gave British 50 old American naval destroyers we gained the right to maintain American bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies. cash-and-carry policy: a program in which Great Britain traded cash for needed supplies from the United States and transported them across the Atlantic in its own ships; protecting American neutrality.
August 9, 1941: Churchill met with Roosevelt on a British battleship to discuss war aims. The leader issued the Atlantic Charter. It called for: - freedom of trade - the right of people to chose their own government - the “final destruction of Nazi tyranny”
“V” FOR VICTORY
3. A Global Conflict June 22, 1941: Hitler launched a massive attack on the Soviet Union. - In a few days, Germans had destroyed: - The greater part of the Soviet air force - Disabled thousands of Soviet tanks - Captured half a million soldiers November 1941: German armies had pushed 600 miles inside the Soviet Union. December 1, 1941: German troops began as assault on Moscow In days, the Soviets forced the Germans to retreat.
Japanese Expansion July 1940: Japanese government moved to establish the “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity sphere”. an appeal to Asians who wanted to rid their lands of European rule. -The United States retaliated by placing an embargo on the sale of scrape iron to Japan. / RESPONSE / Sept. 27, 1940: Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy. Under this pact: - affirmed the right of every nation to “receive the space to which it is entitled” - pledged to reach that goal - pledged to come to one another’s aid if attacked July 24, 1941: Japan invaded southern Indochina. President Roosevelt demanded that Japan not only withdraw from Indochina but also China. Congress placed an embargo on oil and froze all Japanese assets in the United States.
Pearl Harbor Admiral Yamamoto convinced Japanese leaders that bombers taking off from aircraft carriers equipped with torpedoes could effect a successful surprise attack. November 1941: Hirohito, Japanese emperor, gave the go ahead for war. December 7, 1941: Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor sank or disabled 19 American ships destroyed 188 plane killed 2,400 wounded 1,100 December 8, 1941: The United States declared war on Japan. December 11, 1941: Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. Britain declared war on Japan. Japanese – American Internment February 19 1942: President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066. Under this order all Japanese on the West Coast, including American citizens of Japanese decent, were to be evacuated and confined in internment camps.
ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR
“A DAY THAT WILL LIVE IN INFAMY” --F.D.R. DECEMBER 7, 1941
PERAL HARBOR MEMORIAL
Vocabulary (pkt) Collective security: negotiations between nations to take joint action against enemy attack. Sanctions: coercive measure, frequently involving trade, taken by several nations against another nation that is breaking international law. Appeasement: the granting of concessions to another country to maintain peace. Blitzkrieg: a swift, sudden Nazi offensive for the purpose of a speedy victory; “lightning war” Sitzkrieg: sit- down war; time period on the western front (spring/winter of 1939-1940) when the western front was quiet. West called it the “phony war”. Blitz: an intensive air raid Lend – lease: authorization to lend war equipment to a country whose defense is considered vital to national security. scorched earth policy: a policy in which Soviet citizens destroyed anything that could be of use to Nazi invaders. kamikazes: Japanese pilot and plane carrying explosives, dedicated to suicidal attack in WWII. They volunteered to crash into Allied bases and ships.