10 Nutrient & Waste Transport Absorbed nutrients to liver for processingLiver releases glucose into bloodstreamTransports amino acid building blocksTransfers nitrogenous waste to kidney
11 Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide Transport Cells require oxygenCells produce carbon dioxideBlood carries gasses to & from lungs
12 Temperature Maintenance Heat is constantly produced by cellsBlood distributes heatBrain regulatory center (hypothalamus) maintains homeostasisSurface vessels constrict to conserve heatSurface vessels dilate to dissipate heat
14 Hormone Circulation Hormones are chemical messengers The circulatory system is the highwaywithin which hormones travel throughout the body, from their site of productionto the target tissues that are capable ofresponding to them.
24 Heart Valves Prevent backflow of blood Semilunar valves Pulmonary & aorticBetween ventricle & arteryAtrioventricular valvesBetween atrium and ventricleRight-tricuspidLeft-bicuspid
25 Heart Contractions Depends on autorhythmic cells in heart Sinoatrial node – starts heartbeat (pacemaker)located in upper wall of right atriaAtrioventricular node-located at base of rt. atriaAtrioventricular bundle – in septum, 2 branchesPurkinje fibers-in ventricular wallsCells fire in order
27 Monitoring Heartbeat Heartbeat Ways to monitor Cycle of contraction & relaxationWays to monitorStethoscope-lubb and dupp soundsMonitor blood pressureVentricular diastole – relaxationVentricular systole – contractionElectrocardiogramP wave-atria contract, ventricles relaxQRS wave-ventricles contract, atria relaxT wave-electrical changes that precede ventricularcontraction
28 Blood Pressure Measured in millimeters of mercury Normal blood pressureLess than 120 over 80HypertensionHigh blood pressureOver 140 over 90Risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failurePrehypertension120 to 139 over 80 to 89
37 Other Lymphatic Organs SpleenDestroys old blood cellsHas emergency blood supplyFilters bloodThymusMatures T-cells for immune system
38 Atherosclerosis Thickening & hardening of artery walls Accumulation of plaqueCan block blood, increase pressure
39 Heart Attack Most common cause of death in U.S. Insufficient blood supply to heart muscleMay be result of blood clotWarning signs of heart attackTightness in center of chestPain in neck, shoulder or armsLightheadedness, nausea, sweating, shortness of breath
40 Angina Pectoris Chest pain Caused by similar reasons as heart attack Reduced blood flowDoes not kill heart muscle
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