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Presentation on theme: "Circulation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Circulation

2 Bridge to Recovery In The News

3 Circulation Movement of fluid through an organism Circulatory system
Transport system Uses fluid to move substances

4 No Circulatory Systems
In simple organisms in moist environments

5 Open Circulatory Systems

6 Closed Circulatory Systems


8 Human Circulatory System
Heart – muscular pump Blood vessels Network of tubes Closed system Blood

9 Cardiovascular System
Heart & blood vessels Transport functions Nutrients Wastes Oxygen Carbon dioxide Temperature maintenance Hormone circulation

10 Nutrient & Waste Transport
Absorbed nutrients to liver for processing Liver releases glucose into bloodstream Transports amino acid building blocks Transfers nitrogenous waste to kidney

11 Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide Transport
Cells require oxygen Cells produce carbon dioxide Blood carries gasses to & from lungs

12 Temperature Maintenance
Heat is constantly produced by cells Blood distributes heat Brain regulatory center (hypothalamus) maintains homeostasis Surface vessels constrict to conserve heat Surface vessels dilate to dissipate heat


14 Hormone Circulation Hormones are chemical messengers
The circulatory system is the highway within which hormones travel through out the body, from their site of production to the target tissues that are capable of responding to them.

15 Blood Circulatory Vessels
Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins

16 Arteries & Arterioles Carry blood away from heart
Aorta leaves heart (largest artery) Aorta branches into other arteries Arteries branch into arterioles Arterioles are smaller in diameter

17 Walls of Arteries

18 Capillaries Connect arterioles & venules One cell thick walls
Blood cells move through single file Site of diffusion of gasses, nutrients, & wastes

19 Capillary Beds Sphincters regulate blood flow
Capillaries found throughout tissue

20 Veins & Venules Capillaries empty into venules
Venules merge into larger veins Return blood toward the heart

21 Valves Found in veins Prevent backflow of blood
Varicose veins result from incompetent valves

22 Heart Pump of the circulatory system Human heart has two pumps
Each side has two chambers Atrium above Ventricle below

23 Circulatory Pathways

24 Heart Valves Prevent backflow of blood Semilunar valves
Pulmonary & aortic Between ventricle & artery Atrioventricular valves Between atrium and ventricle Right-tricuspid Left-bicuspid

25 Heart Contractions Depends on autorhythmic cells in heart
Sinoatrial node – starts heartbeat (pacemaker) located in upper wall of right atria Atrioventricular node-located at base of rt. atria Atrioventricular bundle – in septum, 2 branches Purkinje fibers-in ventricular walls Cells fire in order


27 Monitoring Heartbeat Heartbeat Ways to monitor
Cycle of contraction & relaxation Ways to monitor Stethoscope-lubb and dupp sounds Monitor blood pressure Ventricular diastole – relaxation Ventricular systole – contraction Electrocardiogram P wave-atria contract, ventricles relax QRS wave-ventricles contract, atria relax T wave-electrical changes that precede ventricular contraction

28 Blood Pressure Measured in millimeters of mercury
Normal blood pressure Less than 120 over 80 Hypertension High blood pressure Over 140 over 90 Risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure Prehypertension 120 to 139 over 80 to 89

29 Electrocardiogram

30 Blood Plasma Cells Platelets

31 Plasma Mostly water Dissolved substances
Nutrients, hormones, gases, wastes Salts & ions electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Zn, K) serve 3 functions: Proteins-helps balance osmotic pressure between cells and blood. Examples include serum albumin, antibodies, fibrinogen, & prothrombin

32 Blood Cells & Platelets
Suspended in plasma Types of formed elements Red blood cells = erythrocytes White blood cells = leukocytes Platelets


34 Platelets Cell fragments Important for clotting or coagulation

35 Lymphatic System One way circulatory system toward heart
Returns lost fluid to blood Picks up material from tissue Cleans material

36 Lymph Nodes Activates immune response Cleans lymph

37 Other Lymphatic Organs
Spleen Destroys old blood cells Has emergency blood supply Filters blood Thymus Matures T-cells for immune system

38 Atherosclerosis Thickening & hardening of artery walls
Accumulation of plaque Can block blood, increase pressure

39 Heart Attack Most common cause of death in U.S.
Insufficient blood supply to heart muscle May be result of blood clot Warning signs of heart attack Tightness in center of chest Pain in neck, shoulder or arms Lightheadedness, nausea, sweating, shortness of breath

40 Angina Pectoris Chest pain Caused by similar reasons as heart attack
Reduced blood flow Does not kill heart muscle



43 Stroke Interference with blood supply to brain
Can cause weakness, numbness, paralysis or Death

44 End chapter 29

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