Homework: Dear Prime-Minister Abe… 英語・日本語でもＯ Ｋ Using the Australian case to support your arguments, write a letter to Prime Minister Abe expressing your views on migration to Japan: should the doors be opened to migrants or not? ( 日本に外国人をもっと受け入れるか、また は受け入れを拒否するか、どちらか自分の 考えを決めて、オーストラリアの状況を参 考に、安倍首相に手紙を書く )
Australia’s G20 presidency runs from 1 December 2013 to 30 November 2014 Tony Abbott to chair the G20 Leader’s Summit in Brisbane Nov. 15~16 The most significant meeting of world leaders Australia has ever hosted…
What did John Howard do? Reject? (Go home!) Accept? (Come in!)
What did John Howard do? Reject? (Go home!) Accept? (Come in!)
TAMPA (August 2001) The Norwegian vessel MV Tampa picked up 433 asylum-seekers ( 亡命者 ) from a boat sinking in international waters between Australia and Indonesia The Government ordered Tampa not to enter Australian waters but the captain defied the order and moved towards Christmas Island John Howard declares that refugees from the Tampa would “never” set foot on Australian soil.
2623 km Northwest of Perth, South of Indonesia (May 2014: 1251 asylum seekers)
TAMPA (August 2001) Australian soldiers board the vessel; naval and air patrols increased The Government rushed in legislation to give its move legal backing. Eventually New Zealand took 131 asylum seekers; the rest were sent to Nauru for processing (‘The Pacific Solution’)
The Pacific Solution: Summary Introduced in 2001 after Tampa Asylum seekers who try to reach Australia are intercepted by navy and then… …sent to impoverished island camps to have their applications processed Government attempts to find a 3 rd country to take them (but eventually accepted by Australia if no takers) パシフィック・ソリューション（ Pacific Solution ）は、オーストラリアへの 不法入国者（難民認定希望者）を本土に上陸させる代わりに、太平洋の島国 に収容する政策。
'SIEV' is the term used by the Australian Government to refer to boats carrying those without papers. It stands for 'Suspected Illegal Entry Vessel.' (X=unknown) It is used instead of the name of the boats: dehumanises those traveling in the boats?
SIEV-X (October 2001) A wooden fishing boat overloaded with 421 asylum seekers meets Australian warship north of Christmas Island Warship fires warning shots to stop boat moving into Australian waters Some jump into the water, hold children up; government concludes children have been “thrown overboard”
“More disturbingly a number of children have been thrown overboard, again with the intention of putting us under duress.” Philip Ruddock, Immigration Minister ABC, 7 October 2001
SIEV-X (October 2001) 353 drown (including 146 children and 142 women) Indonesian fishing boat picks up survivors and takes them back to Jakarta 7 survivors from 5 families now living in Australia on TPVs
“We will decide who comes to this country and the circumstances in which they come.” John Howard -ABC, 28 October 2001
“If I can invite whom I want into my home, then I should have the right to have a say in who comes into my country.” Pauline Hanson, 1998
November 10 th 2001 Howard wins federal election with increased majority Tampa/SIEV-X key to victory?
Asylum Seekers who do reach Australian mainland detained in Australian detention camps ( 収容所 ) This is “mandatory” ( 義務的な, 強制 の )
What is ‘mandatory detention’? Refugees/asylum seekers placed in detention centre while claim processed –Mandatory( 強制 ) since 1992 If accepted as refugees granted temporary protection visa (TPV) for three years – (similar to Japan’s 在留特別認可） Re-assessed after three years; TPV renewed if considered unsafe to return Access to review/appeal in Austr. courts
Detention Feb. 2011: 5,061 men, 571 women 1,027 children (382 without parents) Arbitrary detention of women/children 7 guarded centres in desert areas Held for up to 7 years Breach of international law? Mental health problems –especially among children – 85% later become citizens! Poor conditions/few rights Mentally ill Australian citizens & legal residents locked up Australian citizens deported?!?
Rudd Government Reforms End of ‘Pacific Solution’ (2007) – Nauru offshore processing centres closed –unauthorised arrivals processed on Christmas Island Temporary protection visas (TPV) abolished ‘New Directions in Detention’ (July ’08) –new ‘risk based’ approach to detention (children & family not to be detained) ‘Softening’ of refugee policy=more boat arrivals?
November 2009 September 2010 May 2010: Curtin Air Base, an isolated desert detention house, re-opened April 2010: Australia suspends asylum claims from certain countries (legal?!?)
Gillard Government Reforms Oct 2010 –Gillard announces more children and families would be moved out of immigration detention centres into community-based accommodation “when we came to government we issued detention values about not having children in high security, behind razor wire, and obviously we have worked to deliver on those detention values.”
March/April 2011 Protests, riots Buildings damaged Asylum seekers on roof Hunger strike, lips sewn together
Warning bells before detainee riots Independent inquiry into the April Christmas Island and Villawood riots released Identified bad conditions: failing sewerage systems, ''precarious'' supply of water and access to toilets, and education under stress. Overcrowding also to blame: 2530 on the island. November 30, 2011
Gillard Government Reforms: The “Malaysian Solution” ( 難民マレーシア移送案 ) July 2011: Malaysia & Australia sign swap deal to resettle 4,000 refugees from Malaysia in return for sending 800 asylum seekers there Malaysia agrees to treat asylum seekers “in accordance with human rights standards” (BUT Malaysia not signatory to UN Refugee Convention…)
“Malaysian Solution” Rejected by High Court The High Court has declared the so-called Malaysian solution invalid, leaving the Federal Government's refugee policy in tatters ( ずた襤褸 ) and 335 asylum seekers stranded on Christmas Island. In a 6-1 decision, the court said Malaysia did not have laws in place to ensure the safety of asylum seekers (Malaysia has not signed the UN Refugee Convention) Aug 31 2011
Gillard has made a formal request to Nauru to reopen an asylum-seeker processing centre on the Pacific island (=offshore settlement) – 豪州のギラード政権は、方針の転換を決定。かつ ての保守政権と同様にナウルなどの収容所を再開 することで、難民希望者の流入に歯止めがかかり 、難民船の悲劇も減ると期待している。 Refugee intake to jump to 20,000/year (+40%) as part of plan to stop people-smuggling Record Influx of Asylum Seekers in 2012: Return to Howard’s “Pacific Solution” August 2013
Another Asylum Seeker Boat Disaster: 100+ dead 2012: 114 boats carrying more than 7800 people arrived in Australian waters…
Tony Abbot declares Government has “closed floodgates” on asylum seeker arrivals Operation Sovereign Borders starts Sept. 2013 after election “The no. of people arriving in boats has plunged to just 10% of the 50,000/year under the previous Labor government.”
July High Court rebuffs bid to force Afghan asylum seeker home (November 2014) September AugustJuly October
Easy to Criticise Australia…but what about Japan?
In 2012–13, a total of 50,444 people lodged applications; 20,019 were accepted…
法務省統計 July 2010: 71 inmates out of 442 being held in three detention centers in Ibaraki, Osaka and Nagasaki have been confined for more than a year No limit on how long the government can hold foreign residents deemed to be in Japan illegally… Most detainees are held for overstaying (cf. Australia: overstayers are not locked up)
March 22, 2010 Immigration detainees end hunger strike: Osaka center staff to meet inmates Thursday, May 13, 2010 Hunger strike ( ハンスト ) at immigration center About 60 detainees at the East Japan Immigration Control Center in Ushiku, Ibaraki Prefecture, have been on hunger strike since Monday to seek better treatment
Human chain draws attention to plight of detained foreigners (October 2004) Hundreds of people formed a human chain in front of the Justice Ministry on Wednesday, seeking to draw attention to the plight of more than 1,000 foreigners held at detention centers across the country in connection with immigration procedures
Forced Detention, deportation of asylum seekers protested in Tokyo ‘Tanabata Campaign’: theme of ‘no separation among family members’ Participants paraded through Shibuya holding bamboo branches with messages written on tanzaku (strips of paper)" 10/7/05
'They had no chance': disaster at Christmas Island as people smugglers' boat dashed on rocks 40 people are feared dead after a boat which may have been carrying as many as 80 asylum seekers crashed into cliffs at Christmas Island. December 15, 2010
Islands excised to head off boat November 5, 2003 Boat of Kurdish asylum seekers detected off Melville Island New regulations exclude this area Asylum seekers towed back to Indonesia Regulations later disallowed…
Papua Asylum Seekers (June ’06) Oz grants temporary visas to 42 Papua asylum seekers who arrive on N. coast Indonesia protests vigorously Australia introduces new rules: even asylum seekers who arrive on the mainland sent to Nauru camps –later rejected by upper house
Howard Government Reforms 1 st steps in dismantling of ‘inhumane’ mandatory detention policy (March ’05) –Releasing long-term detainees who cannot be returned home Migration and Ombudsman Legislation Amendment Bill 2005 (Nov.) –Three-month time limits on deciding protection visa applications –Cases not meeting the 90-day deadline to be reported on in parliament New govt. immigration law rejected (Aug. 2006) –Would have sent asylum seekers to detention centres in Nauru while applications being processed
Australia returns asylum seekers to Sri Lanka Australia's government confirmed Monday that it had handed over a boatload of asylum seekers to Sri Lankan authorities in a transfer at sea, drawing outrage from human rights groups who fear those on board could be persecuted in their home country. (July 7) All at sea: Is Australia's fast-tracked asylum screening policy fair?
In blow to Abbott, Australian court halt repatriation of Sri Lankan asylum seekers Australia is under fire for assessing Sri Lankan refugee claimants at sea and sending them home to face charges of illegally leaving the country. The High Court has halted the latest expulsion (July 8)
Prime Minister Tony Abbott backs down in asylum seeker stand-off with Indonesia 2013/11/13
Second wave of boat people:89-98 Third wave of boat people:1999~2003 TAMPA 4 th wave 2009~
Oceanic Viking Incident: Kevin Rudd’s Tampa? October ’09: Australian ship Oceanic Viking rescues 78 Sri Lankan asylum seekers in Indonesian waters Taken to Australia-funded immigration detention centre on the Indonesian island of Bintan BUT most refuse to get off ship Asylum seekers remain on Oceanic Viking until Nov. 17 th when they agree to be transferred to detention centre –Rudd promises to process claims quickly…
125 arrested after Australia asylum- seekers riot at detention center Some 125 asylum seekers were in police custody on the Pacific island nation of Nauru after a riot ended with fire destroying most of an Australian-run detention center there The fire caused an estimated 60 million Australian dollars ($55 million) damage July 21, 2013