2 Meaning and Definition Employees make or break the Organization.Employees are life blood & vital resource of Org. Profitability and survival depends upon caliber of Human Resource .Recruitment and Selection are one of main functions of HRM.Recruitment is not only concerned with engaging a required number of people and also quality manpower.Costs of inefficient manpower are formidable in financial expenditure .Quality manpower and Placement procedures are pre-requisites to the development of effective workforce.With inefficient workforce standard performance cannot be reached.In the last quarter of 20th century there are more of labor available but great shortage of skilled workforce. There are brain drain .Un employment and under-employment was rife.Social and technological changes making forecasting difficult and variety of human skill and job redundant .
3 In the recent years there are major changes in attitude towards work. Worker are unwilling to accept dull and meaningless tasks and are giving importance to meaningful lives ,welfare and work life balance .Workers are becoming self motivated .Employers are ready to pay more to competent workforce.Organization are adopting best practices for employment.Hire and fire system is losing importance.Discrimination is replaced with policy of equal opportunity.Responsibility of Recruitment specialist has increased to attract and retain best people.Overspecialized person are not now not given priority.Job hopping for career progression and better compensation has become attractive .Government has introduced legislations to protect the rights of workforce and union .Laws are enacted to provide reservation to SC ,ST & OBC ,prohibit child labor , contract labor and bonded labor.New concept like son of soil has become popular and R&R Policy to protect the rights of displaced person have been implemented
4 Recruitment means enlist ,replenish and reinforce workforce. Recruitment is the process of providing job to prospective employees by the employer.It is aimed at preparing an inventory of people fulfilling the laid down criteria in job specification so that organization shall choose the right personnel to fill up vacancy.Last but not the least , if an organization fails to procure the services of persons with required qualifications ,skill and caliber continuously ,a time will come ultimately when all qualified persons will retire and then the org is bound to suffer .
5 Definition of Recruitment According to Kempner “ Recruitment forms the first stage in the process which continues with selection and ceases with placement of the candidate “.Recruitment makes it possible to acquire the number and type of people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the org.According to Flippo “ Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an Organization”.In the words of Mamoria “Recruitment is discovering of potential applicants for actual or anticipated Org. vacancies”.Yoder is of opinion that “Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of efficient working force”.Thus recruitment is generating of applications for specific positions. It is linking activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. Recruitment is therefore, the process of searching prospective workers and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.
6 Sources of Recruitment Basically ,the sources of recruitment are two types; Internal source and External Source .Internal Source; Personnel already on the pay-roll of organization .Filling a vacancy position by promoting people which increases the general level of morale of employees, by transfer and through response of employees to a notified vacancy.Merit of internal sources of recruitment ; advantage of absorbing people acquainted with organizational culture, company can relied on people they have developed, recognition of services of people , reduce labor turn over , instill a sense of security and opportunity for advancement , job training shall be reduced and internal recruitment is less costly.Demerit of internal resource of recruitment ; limited choice , subjectivity due likes and dislikes of superior ,creates frustrations among those not promoted .
7 External sources of recruitment ; Advertisement, Employment Exchanges, Campus recruitment , Unsolicited applicants , labor contractors , employees referrals and field trips.Advertisement ; Media advertisement frequently used method, well-designed one will attract attention ,arose desire and generate action .Employment Exchanges ; Fast methods as already prospective employees are registered. Govt. and private agencies (Head hunter).Campus recruitment ; popular in western countries to take executives at entry level.Unsolicited applications ; request received without any invitation but kept for future vacancy position.Labor contractor ; to hire labor for work of temporary nature the contractor .Employees referrals; recommendations of employees .Leasing , lien and deputation .Selection by invitation and Service commission.Nepotism.Field trips ; Interviewing team makes visit to places where prospective employees are available.Electronic Recruitment
8 Merits of external sources of recruitment ; Fresh talent skill comes to the company , Fresh air , candidates are selected as per terms and conditions of services , new employees may generate better performance , wide range of choice , requisite type of personnel with required KSATV & Potential employees do not extra training .Demerits of external sources of recruitment ; Reduce the morale of existing employees and career advancement , faulty selection and corruption and outsiders are not fully acquainted with rules and regulations . Trainings given to new employees is sometimes expensive .Organization shall decide the sources which is best suited the needs .As per Koontz and O’Donnel observed “the recruitment policy should be to raise talent rather than raid for it”.
9 Recruitment policyPolicy is a standing plan and framework for executive actions for recruitment. It is a general statement of established rule conforming to economic principles.It assist decision making ,checks aberrations and provides framework of implementation .Recruitment Policy should be definite ,positive and clear . It should be translatable into practice . It should flexible ,firm and take care of all anticipated conditions. The policy should be based on facts and sound judgment.Therefore , recruitment policy should be well- considered , pre-planned based on corporate goals and needs and to avoid hasty decisions .A good Recruitment policy should meet org. goals , identify the needs , ensure long term employment and preferred source of recruitment to find best available employees ,retain them and facilitate their growth.
10 Stages of Recruitment and Selection There are four stages of recruitment and selection .First stage; Assessing job , Job Analysis & Job description , person specification and HRP .Assessing Job ; creation of vacancy /post . Decide as to whether recruitment is necessary.Job Analysis . Activities/ tasks carried out are divided and allocated to manageable unit . Job design is carried out and job description is made .Person specification ; KSAAT attributes .Human resource planning ; long term and short term .Second stages ; Sources of recruitment.Interviews and assessment technique occupy an important place in recruitment work but it cannot assure high caliber employees. Hence a systematic and well informed way to be followed to recruit suitable and potential candidate.There are two sources ; Internal and External .Internal Source ; promoted employees , Ex- employees , Transferees , internal advertisement central pool & contract labor.External source ; when suitable person is not available from internal source job market is explored . College / university ,Employment exchange , Head Hunter , live register and ex –service organization.
11 Third stage ; As the assessment of candidates . Recruitment and selection is matching process. After having assessed the demands of job ,we decides the attributes we are looking for.Yardstick is decided to assess the suitability of candidates (criteria ).After having obtained , analyzed and interpretation of information about personnel next step is elimination (scrutiny) of people who are not conforming to the specification.Selection process widely used ; Written test , interviews , personal discussion , group discussion, psychometric tests and verification .Some organization also go for Aptitude Test to know the ability and skills of candidate , Interest Test, Intelligence Test to measure IQ & EQ , Performance achievement Test and Personality test.Selector decide abut the technique depending on job requirement.Selector must be competent to know each tools , its application, inherent strength and limitation of the technique.Assessment start with receiving application from prospective candidates.Initial screening is made after submission of application .Written test is conducted to measure reasoning , verbal – nonverbal fluency, comprehension , numerical ,memory and spatial relation ability .Aptitude test is conducted to measure particular ability . Achievement test / trade test is conducted to measure technical skill .
12 Interviews ; It is widely used assessment technique Interviews ; It is widely used assessment technique . It is second stage of elimination. It is a process of human interaction . Interviewer should be knowledgeable, mature and a good listener and should adoptable to each individual . Prejudices and notions be carefully avoided .Interviews are of various types ; Preliminary interview , Extensive interview , Stress interview , Discussion interview , Structural and Non –Structural interview.Interview Process ; Review background information , Preparation of question plan , creation of helpful setting , Conducting interview ( Rapport building and getting complete information ) .Group selection method(Third stage of elimination ) ; Group exercise like GD ,Executive exercise (problem situation), Group problem solving to judge social ,intellectual and attitude .Psychological Test ( fourth stage of elimination) ; to find out the attitude, aptitude, emotion , general intelligence ,attainment, personality and typical performance .References and testimonials ; Recommendations of senior professional and certificates showing the achievement of candidates are also taken into consideration for selection.Physical and Medical checking . It is done either during selection or after selection process
13 Placement and follow up (fourth stage of recruitment ) ; Final selection ; merit list is drawn based on performance in various tests conducted , vital points of the candidates and their strength and weakness are considered.Negotiation is also done between the authority and candidates regarding compensation.Selection Proceedings and merit list is drawn . 10 to 20% additional enlistment above vacancy position is maintained .At the end of selection process a wealth of information /data about candidates is available .Selected candidates are sent Offer of appointment terms and conditions of service and nature of duties to be performed by the individual . Contract to be clearly worded .Induction and orientation is conducted by HR department . Employees are sent either to work place or to training division for training pertaining to work and field.After training posting of the employee is made.Follow up action; performance monitoring, probation , on the job training and management training is given .
14 Effective Recruitment Evaluation of Recruitment & selection ; It is necessary to adopt a accurate, valid and fair system which should match requirement of organization and Candidate’s characteristics, qualification , trainings and experience. This help correct employment decision . Statistical method like correlation and regression analysis are helpful to know the reliability and validity of selection .Correlation Analysis; to know the relationship between two variables - ability of employee and his performance in the job are two variable .Regression Analysis ; It helps to predict future performance on the basis of known relation ship between variables.Consistency in test score of a candidate which is helpful for evaluation.Matching talent with requirement of job .Good recruitment policy of the organization ;Recruitment objectives , Rules and regulations , strategy to avoid selection error by selecting right selection tools.Cost – Benefits Analysis of Selection .Adoption of 360 degree Selection program ; Involvement subordinate, peer and senior in selection .
15 The selection Committee members should be mature and unbiased. Recommendations and pressure be avoided.Perception of individual be avoided for objective and rational selection .Proper verification of background of candidates and references be checked.Negotiations regarding benefits be conducted during interviews .Recruitment and selection work must be carried out not in vacuum but competently and conscientiously to avoid inefficiency and unhappiness .Efficient recruitment administration ; a good deal of long term preparation be made to earn a good reputation .