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Recruitment: The First Step in the Selection ProcessChapter 6 Recruitment: The First Step in the Selection Process © 2013 by Nelson Education
Chapter Learning OutcomesAfter reading this chapter you should: Understand the link between recruitment and selection Appreciate how the characteristics of the job and organization are influential in attracting job applicants Know the role that accurate expectations play in developing a fit between a person and an organization © 2013 by Nelson Education
Chapter Learning Outcomes (continued)Be able to discuss why a realistic job preview may benefit both the job seeker and the organization Be aware of the internal and external factors that influence an organization's recruitment strategy Be able to design and implement a recruitment action plan © 2013 by Nelson Education
Chapter Learning Outcomes (continued)Be aware of the different methods that can be used to recruit internal and external job applicants Understand the increasingly important role played by the Internet and social media in recruiting Appreciate the need to evaluate the effectiveness of different recruitment methods © 2013 by Nelson Education
Attracting Job ApplicantsRecruitment: the generation of an applicant pool for a position or job in order to provide the required number of qualified candidates for a subsequent selection or promotion process Applicant pool: the set of potential candidates who may be interested in, and who are likely to apply for, a specific job © 2013 by Nelson Education
Figure 6.1 (p. 211) presents a simplified view of the HRM system, which serves as the framework for the discussion of recruitment issues. In this model, recruitment is an outcome of HR planning. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Attracting Job ApplicantsSelf-selecting out: occurs during the recruitment and selection process when candidates form the opinion that they do not want to work in the organization for which they are being recruited © 2013 by Nelson Education
The Organizational ContextInterests and values: an individual’s likes and dislikes and the importance or priorities attached to those likes and dislikes Job search: the strategies, techniques, and practices an individual uses in looking for a job Individuals become job applicants after forming an opinion on the desirability of working in a particular job within a specific organization. Organizational characteristics such as location, size of the enterprise, and type of industry may steer individuals away from applying for jobs no matter how attractive the job or how qualified they are to do it. Jobs providing autonomy, decision-making authority, and opportunities for self-development win out over those that lack these attributes Organizations that offer special accommodations and flexible work arrangements gain competitive advantages in recruiting. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Corporate Image and Applicant AttractionReputation of an organization is an important concern to job applicants Corporate image predicts the likelihood of interest on the part of a job seeker Familiarity with the company Competitive compensation package © 2013 by Nelson Education
Image Advertising Image advertising: advertising designed to raise an organization’s profile in a positive manner in order to attract job seekers’ interest © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.1Guidelines for Effective Recruiting Ensure that candidates receive consistent and noncontradictory information about important features of the job and its environment Recognize that the behaviour of recruiters and other representatives gives an impression of the organization’s climate, efficiency, and attitude toward employees Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.1 (p. 217) provides a few guidelines for organizational recruiting. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.1(continued)Ensure that all recruiting information and materials given to job applicants present accurate and consistent information Present important information on the job and the organization to job candidates by several different, reliable, and credible sources Give serious consideration not only to the content of information presented to candidates but also to the context in which it is presented © 2013 by Nelson Education
The Person-Organization FitPerson-job fit: when a job candidate has the knowledge, skills, abilities, or other attributes and competencies required by the job in question Person-organization fit: when a job candidate fits the organization’s values and culture and has the contextual attributes desired by the organization An applicant’s resume plays an important role in determining whether the applicant will proceed to the next stage of the hiring process. Organizational recruiters use the content of job applicants’ resumes to make inferences about the suitability of applicants. Both the perception of person-job fit and of person-organization fit predict whether the company will make a job offer. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Communication and PerceptionIf perceptions are positive, a job offer is made and accepted If the perceptions of one do not match those of the other, a job offer is either not made or, if made, not accepted Perceptions are based on communication Inaccurate, incomplete, or distorted information leads to misperceptions and inaccurate decisions. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Figure 6. 3 (p. 219) presents the possible outcomes from this processFigure 6.3 (p. 219) presents the possible outcomes from this process. In all cases, there is a possibility that the perceptions formed by the candidates and/or the organization are wrong. Candidates, particularly, may develop overly positive perceptions of the organization. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Realistic Job Preview Realistic job preview: a procedure designed to reduce turnover and increase satisfaction among newcomers to an organization by providing job candidates with accurate information about the job and the organization © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment Strategy External Factors: The Labour MarketLabour markets and recruiting Part-time labour markets and recruiting Labour markets and recruiting: the overall nature of the economy may influence an organization’s decision to hire nor not to hire, but once a decision to hire is made, the nature of the labour market determines how extensively the organization will have to search to fill the job with a qualified candidate. When qualified labour is scarce, the organization must broaden its recruiting beyond its normal target population. Organizations must be prepared to alter their recruiting strategy to match labour market conditions. Part-time labour markets and recruiting: more companies are employing low-wage, entry-level workers on a part-time basis. Temporary or contingent jobs have shown tremendous growth over the last decade. Temporary work is serving as a training ground for more permanent positions. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Outsourcing Outsourcing: contracting with an outside agent to take over specified HR functions © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment StrategiesExternal Factors: The Legal Environment Systemic Discrimination Diversity Recruitment Legal environment: any organizational recruitment program must comply with the legal and regulatory requirements that apply to its operation. Systemic discrimination: in employment, the intentional or unintentional exclusion of members of groups that are protected under human rights legislation through recruiting, selection, or other personnel practices or policies. Diversity recruitment: many organizations are dealing with employment equity issues to eliminate discrimination in the workplace for women, visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, and people with disabilities. Diversity makes good business sense. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment StrategiesInternal Factors: Business Plan Job Level and Type Recruiting Strategy and Organizational Goals Describing the Job Business plan: an organization’s business plan addresses those aspects of the external environment that affect how the organization does business. An organization’s business plan also influences the degree to which the organization fills vacancies with internal or external applicants. It is common to bring someone in from the outside to fill an entry level position. Job level and type: both the type of occupation and the nature of the industry in which it is involved may influence an organization’s recruiting strategy. Recruiting strategy and organizational goals: different organizational goals lead to different recruitment strategies. One must decide whether to concentrate recruiting efforts on internal/external candidates. Describing the job: duties and responsibilities and skills required for the job. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Human Resources PlanningHuman resources planning: the process of anticipating and providing for the movement of employees into, within, and out of an organization © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.3Developing a Recruitment Strategy Based on our business plan, how many positions will we need to staff? Based on the job analysis, what is the nature of the position that must be filled? Based on the job analysis, what qualifications must job candidates possess? Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.3 (p. 230) eliminates any discrepancy between the supply of and demand for human resources. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.3 (continued)Based on organization analysis, what percentage of the positions can, or should, be staffed with internal candidates? Based on the labour market, is there an available supply of qualified external candidates? Based on the labour market, how extensively will we have to search for qualified applicants? © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.3 (continued)Based on legal considerations, what are our goals with respect to employment equity? Based on the business plan, organization analysis, and job analysis, what information and materials will we present to job candidates? © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment Action PlanTiming of recruitment initiatives Locating and targeting the applicant pool Timing of recruitment initiatives: recruiting occurs in response to need; an employee leaves for one reason or another and, if the position is retained, must be replaced either through internal or external hiring. Pattern occurs in large organizations which recruit from college/university graduates. The timing of the recruiting process can extend over a considerable period of time. Locating and targeting the applicant pool: target recruiting efforts on a specific pool of job applicants who have the appropriate knowledge, skills, abilities, and competencies in order to perform the job. This applicant pool may be concentrated in one geographic area or spread throughout the country. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.4Elements of a Recruitment and Staffing Action Plan Develop a recruitment strategy Develop the applicant pool Screen the applicant pool Conduct a review of job applicants Evaluate the recruiting effort Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.4 (p. 232) illustrates that in order to remain competitive, the organization must synchronize its recruiting to when the best candidates are likely to be available. This means that the HR team must have a good working knowledge of the labour market and an effective recruitment and staffing plan. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment Sources for Internal CandidatesInternal Job Postings Replacement Charts Human Resources Information Systems Nominations Internal job postings: internal candidates provide the organization with a known source of labour. Internal applicants are likely to have more realistic expectations about the job or organization and to have more job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Replacement charts: organizations expect that vacancies will occur through death, illness, retirement, resignation, or termination and, as part of the HR planning function, develop a succession plan for filling vacancies with existing employees. Replacement charts list each job with respect to its position in the organizational structure. The replacement chart lists the incumbent for the position and the likely internal replacements for the incumbent. The chart includes information on the present job performance of each potential successor. Human resources information systems: involves the creation of a comprehensive computerized database that contains the job analysis information on each position, including information on the required KSAOs. Nominations: occur when someone who knows about a vacancy nominates another employee to fill it. In most cases, supervisors nominate one or more of their employees for a vacant position. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Class Activity As a recent graduate of the Human Resources program, how would you go about looking for a job? What do you need to think about in your job search? © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment Sources for External CandidatesJob Advertisements Newspapers Professional Periodicals and Trade Journals Radio and Television Public Displays Direct Mail © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment Sources for External Candidates (continued)Special Recruiting Events Job Fair Employee Referral Networking Walk Ins Employment Agencies © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment Sources for External Candidates (continued)Service Canada Centres Executive Search Firms In-house Recruiters Temporary Help Agencies © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruiting at Educational InstitutionsSeeking entry-level technical, professional and managerial employees Placement services provided in the educational institutions Well-established campus recruiting programs © 2013 by Nelson Education
E-Recruiting: The Use of the Internet and Social NetworksInternet recruiting: the use of the Internet to match candidates to jobs through electronic databases that store information on jobs and job candidates Advantages of Internet recruiting: company can reach a potentially limitless talent pool at minimal cost and beyond its normal geographical location; the company can provide more information about the position to job seekers than does a typical print ad; companies can provide up-to-date information on their corporate image; new jobs can be posted as the need arises; it speeds up the recruiting process; and it provides more opportunities for smaller firms. Disadvantages to Internet recruiting: large volume of applications/resumes; time consuming to screening; not all companies want applicants to complete a standardized online resume. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Class Activity Do you think the Internet is a good vehicle to look for a job? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Social Network RecruitingSocial networks: Internet sites that allow users to post a profile with a certain amount of information that is visible to the public © 2013 by Nelson Education
Table 6.1 (p. 248) summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of different recruitment methods. Internal recruitment has the advantage of dealing with known quantities. Furthermore, internal job applicants already have realistic expectations of life in the organization. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Comparison of Recruitment Methods (continued)© 2013 by Nelson Education
Comparison of Recruitment Methods (continued)© 2013 by Nelson Education
Comparison of Recruitment Methods (continued)© 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Today 6.5Behavioural measures Turnover Within 6 months Within 12 months Within 24 months Absenteeism Performance measures Performance ratings Sales quotas Performance potential Recruitment and Selection Today 6.5 (p. 252) illustrates that there are many different criterion measures that can be used to evaluate recruiting efforts. These criteria can be groups into three broad categories: behavioural measures, performance measures, and attitudinal measures. © 2013 by Nelson Education
Recruitment and Selection Today 6.5 (continued)Attitudinal measures Job satisfaction Job involvement Satisfaction with supervisor Commitment to organization Perceived accuracy of job descriptions © 2013 by Nelson Education
Summary Recruitment is the first step in hiring or staffing processRecruitment needs to attract qualified job applicants and must take into account the strategies that job seekers use © 2013 by Nelson Education
Summary (continued) HR planners must consider both the internal and external constraints HR professionals must know the effectiveness of different recruitment methods and build them into their recruitment strategy plans in order to evaluate the recruiting outcomes © 2013 by Nelson Education
Summary (continued) Obtain appropriate methods for contacting the target applicant pool Recruitment strategies must contain an action plan Recruitment campaigns are based on the principle of improving the fit © 2013 by Nelson Education
Discussion Questions Discuss the relationship between recruitment and selection. Discuss how the characteristics of the job and organization influence job seekers. Why is it important that job seekers develop accurate expectations of what their position/role will be in an organization before accepting employment there? © 2013 by Nelson Education
Discussion Questions (continued)Why does a realistic job preview benefit both the job seeker and the organization? What are the internal and external factors that influence an organization’s recruitment strategy? What are the elements of an effective recruitment and staffing action plan? © 2013 by Nelson Education
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