William Stewart Halsted Founder of Surgical Training at Johns Hopkins Courtesy: Czeisler, C
Historical Perspective on Residency “…. by the age of 33, the physician [William Stewart Halsted] faced … a losing battle against a relentless addiction to cocaine. Yet … enjoyed international renown as one of the greatest surgeons ever to wield a scalpel.” William Stewart Halsted Performing Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital 1904 Markel H. The Accidental Addict. N Engl J Med 2005;352:966-968.
Libby and Sidney Zion 1989 New York changes health code
Case study shows medical residents report sleep loss and fatigue take toll on learning, work and personal lives. Nearly 85 percent of residents studied fall into a range calling for clinical intervention for sleep problems. June 7, 2004 George StamatisGeorge Stamatis
Driving While Drowsy: The Threat to Resident Physicians & Public Safety Submitted at the Second Meeting of the Committee on Optimizing Graduate Medical Trainee (Resident) Schedules to Improve Patient Safety March 4, 2008 Irvine, CA