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Early Buddhist Architecture in Japan. Kyoto, Japan, 9 th cen. A.D. II. A. Xi’an, China 6 th cen.Nara, Japan, 8 th century East Asian Imperial Capitals.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Buddhist Architecture in Japan. Kyoto, Japan, 9 th cen. A.D. II. A. Xi’an, China 6 th cen.Nara, Japan, 8 th century East Asian Imperial Capitals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Buddhist Architecture in Japan

2 Kyoto, Japan, 9 th cen. A.D. II. A. Xi’an, China 6 th cen.Nara, Japan, 8 th century East Asian Imperial Capitals I. Some basic values in East Asian urbanism influence the design of many Buddhist monasteries

3 Xi’an, China 6 th cen. I. A. An ideal city: Confucian geomancy in city plans (Nara, Japan, inspired by the city of Xi’an, China)

4 I. A. 1. How did Chinese cosmology picture the earth? Ideal Chinese capital cityCosmic diagram in Four Deities tile, 200 BC

5 East Green Dragon West: White Tiger South: Red Bird II. A. 2. What meaning does Confucian geomancy attribute to the four cardinal directions? Xi’an, China, 6 th cen. North: Dark Turtle & Snake II. A. 3. What position would the virtuous ruler occupy in a Confucian city? Confucius ( B.C.)

6 II. Context: Buddhism enters Japan in AD 552 from China (through Korea) as a quality of higher civilization, including the ideal of the centralized state

7 The Horyuji, near Nara, Japan, 7 th cen. AD ( ) II. A. Parts of the Horyuji Gakumonju (its full name, meaning Learning Temple) as reflection of the fact that temples at this time were more intent on studying the faith than disseminating it

8 The Horyuji II. B. What is the orientation of East Asian monasteries like Horyuji? Cosmic diagram in Four Deities tile, 200 BC

9 III. A pantheistic world view (the divine is everywhere) in the pagoda and the image hall The Horyuji

10 III. A. The pagoda (the stupa of East Asian Buddhist monasteries)

11 III. A. 1. What was the purpose of the pagoda in East Asian Buddhist monasteries? Pagoda of the Horyuji, AD 670Brick Pagoda, Dengfeng, China, AD 523

12 III. A. 2. Like stupas, pagodas presented an image of clarity of Buddhism. How did pagodas come to look so different from the Indian stupa? The Yungang Caves, Buddhist sanctuary, China, 5 th -6 th century AD

13 III. A. 3. How was the pagoda filled with the divinity of the Buddha, becoming an autonomous entity within the monastic complex? Pagoda of the Horyuji

14 III. A. 4. What was the eventual destiny of the pagoda in future Buddhist temple designs? The Shitennoji, Osaka, Japan, The Horyuji, Nara, 670 The Asuka-dera, Nara, Japan, 588 The Yakushiji, Nara, Japan, 688

15 The Great Stupa at Sanchi II. B. A deified Buddha: the purpose of the image hall (kondo or golden hall) in East Asian Buddhism The Image Hall at HoryujiBorobudur – terrace with sculpted frieze

16 II. B. 1. How was the image hall filled with the divinity of the Buddha, becoming an autonomous entity within the monastery like the pagoda? The Image Hall (Kondo) of the Horyuji

17 III. B. 2. Monumentality: Creating the grandeur of the temple with wood a. How do the posts at Horyuji contribute to the sense of imposing dignity? The Image Hall (Kondo) of the Horyuji entasis - swelling

18 Image hall of Horyuji Buddhist temple III. B. 2. b. Why is the bracketing system key to the structure and ornament of the Buddhist temple in East Asia? Deity hall of the Shinto shrine at Ise

19 two basic parts of East Asian bracketing system = bearing block + bracket arm III. B. 2. b.

20 higher: three-block bracketsimple bracket system III. B. 2. b.

21 highersimple bracket system three-block bracket farther outward projecting three-block III. B. 2. b.

22 highersimple bracket system three-block bracket farther outward projecting three-block III. B. 2. b.

23 farther outward projecting three-block one- step two-step still higher and farther outward one-step projecting complex or two-step projecting complex steeper, higher, farther III. B. 2. b.

24 Cloud brackets of the Nara style in the Image Hall (Kondo) of the Horyuji III. B. 2. b.

25 Cloud brackets of the Nara style in the Image Hall (Kondo) of the Horyuji III. B. 2. c. How does the massive roof appear to be effortlessly buoyant?

26 III. C. Eliade’s sacred and profane space in the East Asian monastery Xi’an, China Shinto Shrine at Ise The Horyuji

27 III. C. 1. What were two functions the enveloping corridor (kairo) around the temple? The Horyuji

28 III. C. 2. How does the enveloping kairo also strengthen the sense of the divine Buddha as the subject filling the monastery with his presence? the Horyuji

29 III. C. 3. Why was the inner or middle gate threshold in south side of enclosure not simply an entrance? The Horyuji

30 III. C. 3. The Horyuji outer gateinner gate

31 III. D. Spaces where human beings are the autonomous subject: What monastery buildings were outside the most sacred boundary of the kairo? the Horyuji


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