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Asian Art History Day 1 : Architecture.

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Presentation on theme: "Asian Art History Day 1 : Architecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Asian Art History Day 1 : Architecture


3 Stupa India Definition: Buddhist religious monument; mounds were originally made of mud or clay to cover supposed ashes and relics of the Buddha. Later developed into stone monuments.

4 Buddha

5 There are eight different kind stupas, all referring to major events in Buddha Shakyamuni's life.

6 The Great Stupa (3rd century B.C.)
Sanchi, India originally constructed in the 3rd century BCE but was later remodelled in the first century of the Common Era. large earth mounds that are then covered with stone they were built to house the ashes of Buddha. large poll runs vertical thought the center of the Stupa, the poll is buried into the ground the same distance as it is above the ground. Worshipers walk though a gate and up a set of stairs to a path that wraps around the circumference of the Stupa. The Worshipers then walk in a Clockwise direction as a form of mediation. The act of this type of mediation allows the worshiper to come in harmony with the cosmos. The Great Stupa is 120 feet across (36.6 meters) and, excluding the railing and umbrella, is 54 feet high (16.46 meters). The present stupa encases an earlier one of about half its present dimensions. The earlier one, built of large burnt bricks and mud, has been attributed to the Emperor Ashoka The four gateways, or toranas, are the finest works of art at Sanchi and are among the finest examples of Buddhist art in India. Shows episodes in the various lives of the Buddha.

7 The Great Stupa Yasti the mast or pole that arises from the dome of the stupa. It symbolizes the axis of the universe; it is adorned with a series of chatras. Chatra Stone, circular disks located on the yasti Toranas the four gateways around the Great Stupa.

8 Pagoda Definition: tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China,
Japan, and other parts of Asia. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist, and were often located in or near temples.

9 Chinese Pagodas were built of STONE
Important Note: Chinese Pagodas were built of STONE


11 Great Wild Goose Pagoda, at Ci’en Temple, Xi’an (645 A.D.)
645 AD rebuilt in 704 AD, during the Tang Dynasty. One of the pagoda's many functions was to hold figurines of the Buddha The original pagoda stood at a height of 177 ft. - construction of rammed earth with a stone exterior facade eventually collapsed five decades later Empress Wu had the pagoda rebuilt and added five new stories by the year 704 AD. massive earthquake in 1556 heavily damaged the pagoda and reduced it by three stories, to its current height of seven stories renovated again in 1964 pagoda currently stands at a height of 210 ft tall

12 Japanese Pagodas were built of WOOD
Important Note: Japanese Pagodas were built of WOOD


14 Horyu-ji Goju no Tou (Five-Level Pagoda) Horyu-ji Complex Nara, Japan (607 A.D.)
Part of the The Horyu-ji complex in Nara, Japan stands at 122 feet one of the two oldest wood buildings in the world center pillar of the pagoda is estimated to have been felled in 594 AD The pillar is set three meters below the surface of the massive foundation stone, stretching into the ground. At the base of the pillar, a fragment of the Buddha's bone is enshrined. Around it, four sculpted scenes from the life of the Buddha face north, east, south and west. Although the pagoda is five-stories, it does not function as such to allow one to climb up inside but it is rather designed to inspire people with its external view

15 Finial (sorin): Podium (kidan):
used to decoratively emphasize the apex (top). Podium (kidan): used as a “base” for the structure, elevating it above the ground. Take note of the “Sacred Jewel” at the very top of the finial

16 The Horyu-ji complex – Nara, Japan
The temple was founded in 607 AD by the much-revered Prince Shotoku, who is credited with first promoting Buddhism in Japan. Buddhism had arrived in Japan only 50 years before the temple was built. The main purpose of the temple was to properly house a statue of the Medicine Buddha. The original temple burned down in 670, but was gradually rebuilt until the early 8th century. Several buildings still survive from this early rebuilding period, making Horyuji the oldest surviving Buddhist temple in Japan.

17 Broke tradition by placing the pagoda and the Kondo (“Main Hall” – housed murals from the lives of Buddha) side by side

18 One of the few surviving murals from the Horyu-ji Temple Complex
Would have been located in the Kondo

19 The Great Wall of China (5th Century B.C.)
world's longest human-made structure, stretching over approximately 4,000 miles also the largest human-made structure ever built in terms of surface area and mass. estimated that somewhere in the range of 2 to 3 million Chinese died as part of the centuries-long project of building the wall. Many of them were buried along/under with the wall. The first major wall was built during the reign of the First Emperor, the main emperor of the short-lived Qin dynasty. This wall was not constructed as a single endeavor, but rather was created by the joining of several regional walls built by the Warring States. Built to withstand the attack of small arms such as swords and spears, these walls were made mostly by stamping earth and gravel between board frames. Transporting the large quantity of materials required for construction was difficult, so builders always tried to use local resources. Stones from the mountains were used over mountain ranges, while rammed earth was used for construction in the plains. The peasants who died working were buried inside the wall, to be unearthed later by archaeologists. Wall was ‘improved’ by the Ming dynasty to keep the nomadic Mongols out Unlike the earlier Qin fortifications, the Ming construction was stronger and more elaborate due to the use of bricks and stone instead of rammed earth. on the list of the 7 Wonders of the World has been around for nearly 2.5 thousand years and still stands today There was a famous story/legend known by many Chinese about a wife of a worker of the Great Wall. After years of separation, the wife decided to visit her husband at the construction site. Upon learning the death of she jumped off the walls, committing suicide.



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