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Unit 3 City Construction in the Early Chinese Empires.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 City Construction in the Early Chinese Empires."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3 City Construction in the Early Chinese Empires

2 Three Stages of Urban Construction  The North-centered Urban Development The early cultured regions and capital cities  Movement towards the Southern China Great migration from the North to the South ( 5 th ~ 9 th centuries): wars and social disturbances  Coast and hinterland development Territory expansion and the hinterland cities(13-16th); Governmental policies for currency circulation and the growth of international trade (Asian areas)

3 Macro-GeographicalStructure & City Locations Yellow R. Yangtze R. Great Wall Emperors Mausoleum

4 Urbanization Process in History Urbanization Process in History  Political centers moving along the axes Horizontal and vertical movements: from W to E ; From N to S and then to N again  Urbanization areas in the continent Extension from Yellow River Basin to Yangtze River B; Urbanization of the remote areas (the south-west region)  Confucian influence over city form (scale) national capital; prefecture; county; town Unified urban form and authorized construction (Chinese urban system: national capital; prefecture; county; town); Stagnancy of commercial city (harbor city & border city) construction

5 Movement of Capitals and Political Centers in Chinese History Luoyang (Tang D.) Kaifeng (Song D.) Xianyang (Qin D) Chang’an (Han & Tang D.) Hangzhou (Song D.) Beijing (Yuan, Ming & Qing D.)

6 Chinese Cities in Early Periods  Urban relics in the Yellow River basin Longshan---Yangshao Culture(2200-1700 B.C) Pottery and bronze wares, city wall ruins  Urban ruins in the Yangtze River basin Qujialing Culture (2700 B.C) Borderline between city and village, bronze and jade wares  Structure of the early Chinese cities Small city center and big enclosed suburbs; defense facilities; polis State administration (refer to polis), commercial and cultural exchanges

7 Archaeological Discoveries in Yangtze River Basin (BC) Yancheng, Changzhou

8 Archaeological Discoveries in Yellow River Basin (B.C) Archaeological Discoveries in Yellow River Basin (B.C)

9 Structure of Early Chinese Cities Qi Kingdom Zhao ZhaoKingdom

10 Cities in Early Empires (Qin & Han) --- Centralized Administration Country in Asia  Establishment of the Qin Empire The 1 st Centralized Administration System in China; The 1 st Centralized Administration System in China; The capital dominated by the biggest palace in history; The capital dominated by the biggest palace in history; Unified language, currency & communication Unified language, currency & communication  City form and basic regulation in Han Dynasty Square or rectangular city (rammed earth wall) form; The capital administration & the surrounding regions  Characters of the urban space layout Inner city space (palace, administrative buildings); Confucian facilities (a unified social order) and the special market/handcraft regions ( for international trade)

11 Capital of Qin Dynasty --- Xianyang Palace E’Fang Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor Terracotta Army

12 City and Palaces Qin Empire (221-206 B.C)

13 Capital of Han Dynasty ---Chang’an The Palace Changle City form of Chang’an The Palace Weiyang

14 Significance of Han Civilization  The foundation of the orthodox ideology Documents of the Early History--Shiji Establishment of Confucian dominance; the writing system and historical records (Documents of the Early History--Shiji)  The unified urban form in Chinese empire High tide of urban construction (1,587 cities) and urban administration system; Assembled cities along the middle and lower Yellow River basin; The standardized urban form  Influence over other Asian countries Construction of cities on neighboring regions (Korea Peninsula Indo-China Peninsula); Wars against the Huns and the opening of Silk Road

15 Main Cities in Han Dynasty: Yecheng

16 Main Cities in Han Dynasty: Luoyang

17 Evolution of Chinese Cities in Early Empires Evolution of Chinese Cities in Early Empires Features of Chinese Empire cities: L ong-term social stability; Highly centralized administration; Strict hierarchy order and social stratum value; Dissemination of Chinese ideology in urban terms (Japan, Korean, Vietnam……) From structure to function; From individual to model

18 Contribution of Urban System in Tang Dynasty ( 618 ~ 907 AD )  Urban planning in large scale Balanced urban space: axis of symmetry, height control…… Clear functional division: palace, market, administration area…… Establishment of urban enclosed square system: time & space  Progress in construction skill and materials Wider span and larger area of architecture: Linde Palace, (20,000 ㎡ ), towering pagoda, majestic gates, market and the widely use of brick and stone in large buildings  Extensive influence over E.A countries Model for capital construction: Japan, Korea, Vietnam…… Similar architectural aesthetics: large roof pattern & courtyard, hierarchy order in space layout

19 Location and Structure of Chang’an City West Market Daming Palace

20 The Scale of City and Palaces in Tang Empire The enclosed square (Fang)

21 Structure of Chang’an in 8 th C

22 City and Palace (Japan 7-10th ) Kyoto Nara

23 Construction Techniques in China ----- The Corbel Bracket Structure wood brackets Crossbeam supported by brackets

24 Stone used in Architectural Structure Europe and China Pillar-base Stone

25 Reading Ancient City by Stones Korea Gyeongju

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