Civil War Casualties as Motivation for Medical Progress Gwen McEntee History 10 Photo by James F. Gibson, 1862.
California Ground Squirrel Whoa, super cute!!! As is typical for ground squirrels, California Ground Squirrels live in burrows which they excavate themselves. Some burrows are occupied communally. Although they readily become tame in areas used by humans, and quickly learn to take food left or offered by picnickers, they spend most of their time within 25 m of their burrow, and rarely go further than 50 m from it. California Ground Squirrels are frequently preyed on by rattlesnakes. They are also preyed on by eagles, raccoons, foxes, badgers, and weasels. Interdisciplinary research at the University of California, Davis since the 1970s has shown that the squirrels use a variety of techniques to reduce rattlesnake predation. Some populations of California Ground Squirrels have varying levels of immunity to rattlesnake venom as adults. Female squirrels with pups also chew on the skins shed by rattlesnakes and then lick themselves and their pups (who are never immune to venom before one month of age) to disguise their scent. Sand-kicking and other forms of harassment provoke the snake to rattle its tail, which allows a squirrel to assess the size and friskiness (dependent on blood temperature) of the snake.rattlesnakesUniversity of California, Davisvenomcitation needed Another strategy is for a squirrel to super-heat and swish around its tail. When hunting, rattlesnakes primarily rely on their pit organ, which detects infra- red. The hot-tail-swishing appears to convey the message "I am not a threat, but I am too big and swift-moving for it to be worth trying to hunt me." These two confrontational techniques also distract the snake from any nearby squirrel burrows containing pups.infra- red
Major threat: rattlesnakes Mothers chew rattlesnake skin and lick their pups to disguise their scent Squirrels super-heat and swish their tails to intimidate snakes with infrared image California Ground Squirrels
Responses: Scent 1 Infra-red light 2 Photo by Mike Parker Major Threat: Rattlesnakes
R EASONS TEENAGERS DON ’ T READ FOR PLEASURE not enough time (other hobbies, homework, jobs have to read assigned books. Don’t see books that look interesting Don’t see friends and family reading Find reading difficult
Why don’t teenagers read for pleasure? Not enough time (other hobbies, homework, jobs) Have to read assigned books Don’t see books that look interesting Don’t see friends and family reading Find reading difficult
Many teenagers don’t read for fun… …Why? Too little time Assignments Trouble reading No culture of reading No interesting books
Bottled water is bad 1.5 million tons of plastic used each year to bottle 89 billion liters of water. Energy used to ship the bottled water is a waste of resources. 90 % of water bottles are not recycled.
Bottled water hurts the environment. 90% not recycled Landfills Great Pacific Garbage Patch
Is your water bottle here? Photo by Jay Directo AFP Images Is your water bottle here?
Sources Images: Directo, Jay. Canoe paddling through sea of garbage. Photograph. AFP Getty Images. Independent.co.uk. 18 Feb. 2009. Facts: Knopper, Melissa. “Bottled Water Backlash.” E - The Environmental Magazine May-June 2008: 36-39. GreenFILE. EBSCO. Abington Friends School, Jenkintown, PA. 23 Feb. 2009.