Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23. Industry and Empire The New Imperialism Europe controlled most of the African continent Expanded into Asia ○ French in Indochina ○ Dutch."— Presentation transcript:
Industry and Empire The New Imperialism Europe controlled most of the African continent Expanded into Asia ○ French in Indochina ○ Dutch in Indonesia ○ English into Africa, Middle East Nationalism – citizens took pride in their country’s conquests Marianne North connected the empire to citizens daily lives.
The Advance of Industry Franco-Prussian War ends in 1870 German victory France cedes Alsace and part of Lorraine Germany unites under Wilhelm I (Kaiser) ○ Otto Von Bismarck named first Reich chancellor. Continental power shifts towards the new unified Germany.
The Advance of Industry 1870s-1890s Karl Benz invents a workable gas engine Armand Peugeot constructs working car – beings working with Daimler. Eiffel Tower built in 1889 Production of coal, steel, and iron increase exponentially. Sometimes known as the “second” Industrial Revolution.
Rise of German Power Challenges British German power begins to take off after Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine had textile industries and rich iron deposits. New industrial processes and mass production of goods. Begins to spend as much on education as it does on military. ○ Famous German engineers.
Facing Economic Crisis 1873: Economic depression hits most of Europe. Before 1850, economies rely on agriculture. After 1870, economies rely on industry. Shift from labor intensive to capital intensive industry Mass production lowers scarcity, prices drop Firms lower wages and fire people to make up for the difference.
Revolution in Business Practice Earlier, factory owners were involved in all aspects of their business. By the 1870s they began to hire specialized managers to run these aspects. Explain how these new business practices began to reshape gender roles. What is one negative aspect of these shifts?
The New Imperialism Britain and France “Invest” in Egypt Suez Canal, railroads, harbors, telegraph systems, high interest loans 1879: BR & FR take over Egyptian treasury (guarantee repayment of loans) 1882: They invade to squash native resistance BR seizes gov’t and reshapes Egyptian economy ○ Used to be self-sufficient multi crop, now few crops (cotton, silk, wheat) – Egypt suffers
The New Imperialism France Invades Tunisia, 1881 To protect its Algerian colony FR & Britain flood Asia Minor and the Levant with cheap goods Destroying domestic business there. Drives local artisans into low-wage labor jobs. Both use ethnicity and religion to set wages ○ Muslims paid less than Christians ○ Arabs paid less than other ethnic groups
Scramble for Africa – “The Magnificent Cake” Britain Shift from slave trade to raw material extraction – palm oil, cotton, metals, diamonds. Belgium Pure predatory imperialism in the Congo Leopold II installs a kind of encomienda system amongst the natives.
Scramble for Africa Berlin Conference, 1884-1885 Called for by Portugal, organized by Otto von Bismarck. It regulated European colonization and trade in Africa. General Act of the Berlin Conference formalized the so-called Scramble for Africa. Virtually ended any African autonomy
Scramble for Africa Southern Africa British and Dutch battle the Xhosa, Zulu, et. al. for control of the land. Dutch moved into area by 17 th cent (called Boers thereafter) “I contend that we are the finest race in the world…and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is.” - Cecil Rhodes Britain “should rule the country as if there were no inhabitants.” Social Darwinism begins to be used to justify racist sentiments.
Acquiring Asia Territory Britain Malay Peninsula Burma Russia – (Khanates) Turkmenistan Parts of Afghanistan Borders of Persia (Iran) France Indochina (Laos, Cambodia, Cochin China - Vietnam)
March Towards World War? The Paradoxes of Imperialism Begins to create distrust amongst the European powers. ○ Austria-Hungary, Russia, and rival ethnic groups disputed control of Balkans. Costs were great ○ Armies, bureaucratic control, all paid for by the taxpayers of the country. What do you think the biggest paradox of imperialism was/is?
Migrations of Working People One third of all European migrants came from the British Isles Potato famine, landlords kicking farmers out to get higher rents from newcomers. Destinations included North & South America New Zealand Australia Migrants would send money back to their home country, support family members, improve life.
Adaptation to Industrial Change What do you think the effect on workers will be when they are suddenly faced with new machines that run much more quickly than previous? Workers forced to work at “unrealistic pace” Much more physical exertion, with no increase in pay Animosity between the managers and the workers. Unionization How do we reconcile small federal government with top-down industrial capitalism?
The Birth of Mass Politics 1880s: the pace for improvement in working conditions accelerates. London Matchstick Girls: struck to end the fining system, wages, and working conditions (white phosphorous is toxic) Publicized by the press (much freer press back then, see US labor press of 19 th century). The girls won their demands and the strike ended
The Birth of Mass Politics Governments began responding to strikes with police or paramilitary force Why the violent reaction from governments (state or local)? ○ Democracy? ○ Adam Smith’s maxim that the principle architects of policy are merchants and manufacturers. New Unionism: a development in labor that employed salaried managers to plan wide-spread general strikes.
The Birth of Mass Politics European Workers Become Active Labour Party–England Socialist Party –France Social Democratic Party – Sweden, Hungary, Austria, Germany Most inspired by Marxist theories Second International: 1889, formed in Paris by workers across Europe. Attempted to continue Marx’s First International.
Expanding Political Participation 1. Journalism: gives working class an opportunity to learn and share ideas. Fuels public interest in politics. 2. British Political Reform: William Gladstone – new approach to campaigning. Speaks with ordinary working people. Spoke out against empire. The Ballot Act of 1872 – made voting secret Reform Act of 1884 – enfranchised many urban workers and artisans.
Expanding Political Participation Irish Politicians Rise Up Irish National Land League: 1879, opposed absentee landownership. Nationalist representatives elected from this group. Vote as a bloc in English Parliament. Charles Stewart Parnell: advocated home rule, a system of giving Ireland its own parliament.
Expanding Political Participation France’s Third Republic Napoleon III’s defeat at the hands of the Prussian’s led to the Third Republic, replacing the Second Empire. Bonapartists, Orleanists, and Bourbons all struggle to restore their families to power. Henri of Artois – Count of Chambord – attempted to revive the monarchy. Refused to accept tricolored flag. ○ Opted instead to adopt the white flag with the fleur-de-lis of the Bourbons. ○ Rejected from office in the 1870s.
Expanding Political Participation France’s Third Republic 1875: New constitution creates presidency and premiership dependent on support from an elected Chamber of Deputies. Third Republic would last until WWII, when France folds (like a house of cards) to the Nazis. Economic downturns, corruption, and antisemitism keeps the republic on shaky ground. ○ Jews blamed for economy, etc…
France Galvanizes Ideology Leaders attempt to strengthen citizen loyalty. Compulsory and free public education, 1880s Secular teachers support republicanism, replace Catholic clergy. Centralized curriculum ○ Patriotic readings – courses in French geography, lit, and history. Mandatory military service ○ Shift from local loyalty and Catholicism toward national pride. ○ “Schools and the Army turn peasants into Frenchmen.”
Liberalism Rejected Spain and Belgium: male suffrage in 1890 and 1893 respectively, but remained monarchies. Landowners and Catholic church dominated Spain. Denmark and Sweden: limited progress in the Netherlands. Only 14% male suffrage by 1895. Italy: universal suffrage to all men with primary education (14%). Debt, and a disconnected citizenry in the south.
Power Politics in Central and Eastern Europe Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia industrialize at different rates. Germany quickly, Russia more slowly. Bismarck’s Germany Goals achieved, he seeks diplomacy instead of war. Calls Germany “satisfied” and forms the Three Emperors’ League – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. Kulturkampf defeated, he stops persecuting Catholics. Starts attacking socialists and liberals as enemies of the state.
Power Politics in Central and Eastern Europe Bismarck’s Germany Outlaws the Social Democratic Party (using a failed assassination attempt in Kaiser Wilhelm I). Implements tariff to protect German agriculture and industry. ○ Increases food prices, owners had to pay workers more. Stops working with political liberals, increases power of agrarian conservatives.
Power Politics in Central and Eastern Europe Austria-Hungary Parts of the empire industrialized through liberal economics. Liberals decline under the leadership of Count Edouard von Taaffe (PM). Began to play nationalities off each other. Centralizes role of the government in holding together competing interest groups. Balkins rebel against Ottoman rule.