Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presenting Rational Buddhism. Buddhist Cosmology The 31 Planes of Existence Mount Meru.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Presenting Rational Buddhism. Buddhist Cosmology The 31 Planes of Existence Mount Meru."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presenting Rational Buddhism

2 Buddhist Cosmology The 31 Planes of Existence Mount Meru

3 Buddhist Cosmology The 31 Planes of Existence Mount Meru

4 Buddhist Cosmology The 31 Planes of Existence Mount Meru

5

6 31 Planes of Existence 4 Formless Planes Beings of Mind Only Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space 16 Form Planes Beings of Fine Material 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) 7 Planes of Sensual Happiness 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm 4 Planes of MiseryDemons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

7 Mount Meru A square mountain with four sides and is 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) high. It lies at the centre of the world. Around it are seven 7 lakes separated by 7 rings of golden mountains. Outside, in a great ocean, are 4 continents. We humans live on the southern continent called ‘Jambudvipa’.

8 Mount Meru A square mountain with four sides and is 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) high. It lies at the centre of the world. Around it are seven 7 lakes separated by 7 rings of golden mountains. Outside, in a great ocean, are 4 continents. We humans live on the southern continent called ‘Jambudvipa’.

9 Mount Meru A square mountain with four sides and is 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) high. It lies at the centre of the world. Around it are seven 7 lakes separated by 7 rings of golden mountains. Outside, in a great ocean, are 4 continents. We humans live on the southern continent called ‘Jambudvipa’.

10 Mount Meru A square mountain with four sides and is 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) high. It lies at the centre of the world. Around it are seven 7 lakes separated by 7 rings of golden mountains. Outside, in a great ocean, are 4 continents. We humans live on the southern continent called ‘Jambudvipa’.

11 Mount Meru A square mountain with four sides and is 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) high. It lies at the centre of the world. Around it are seven 7 lakes separated by 7 rings of golden mountains. Outside, in a great ocean, are 4 continents. We humans live on the southern continent called ‘Jambudvipa’.

12 Mount Meru A square mountain with four sides and is 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) high. It lies at the centre of the world. Around it are seven 7 lakes separated by 7 rings of golden mountains. Outside, in a great ocean, are 4 continents. We humans live on the southern continent called ‘Jambudvipa’.

13 Mount Meru The 84,000 yojana square top constitutes the Tavatimsa heaven, the highest plane in direct physical contact with the earth. Below are terrace constituting the "heavens" of the Four Great Kings, and is divided into four parts, facing north, south, east & west. The seas surrounding Mount Meru are the abodes of the Asuras who are at war with the Tavatimsa gods.

14 Mount Meru The 84,000 yojana square top constitutes the Tavatimsa heaven, the highest plane in direct physical contact with the earth. Below are terrace constituting the "heavens" of the Four Great Kings, and is divided into four parts, facing north, south, east & west. The seas surrounding Mount Meru are the abodes of the Asuras who are at war with the Tavatimsa gods.

15 Mount Meru The 84,000 yojana square top constitutes the Tavatimsa heaven, the highest plane in direct physical contact with the earth. Below are terrace constituting the "heavens" of the Four Great Kings, and is divided into four parts, facing north, south, east & west. The seas surrounding Mount Meru are the abodes of the Asuras who are at war with the Tavatimsa gods.

16

17 Mount Meru Above the Tavatimsa heaven are the higher Deva and Brahma realms. Mount Meru is also 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) deep. In contrast, the diameter of the earth is only about 12,000 km. The Hell realms are located below the earth’s crust and are divided into 136 Hot Hells and Cold Hells.

18 Mount Meru Above the Tavatimsa heaven are the higher Deva and Brahma realms. Mount Meru is also 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) deep. In contrast, the diameter of the earth is only about 12,000 km. The Hell realms are located below the earth’s crust and are divided into 136 Hot Hells and Cold Hells.

19 Mount Meru Above the Tavatimsa heaven are the higher Deva and Brahma realms. Mount Meru is also 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) deep. In contrast, the diameter of the earth is only about 12,000 km. The Hell realms are located below the earth’s crust and are divided into 136 Hot Hells and Cold Hells.

20 Mount Meru Above the Tavatimsa heaven are the higher Deva and Brahma realms. Mount Meru is also 84,000 yojanas (672,000 km) deep. In contrast, the diameter of the earth is only about 12,000 km. The Hell realms are located below the earth’s crust and are divided into 136 Hot Hells and Cold Hells.

21

22

23

24 Mount Meru Even until the late 19 th century, the Buddhist worldview consisted in the existence of a literal Mount Meru and a flat earth, according to what was written in the texts. The Christians used this to call in question the credibility of Buddhism during the famous Christian-Buddhist debates in Sri Lanka in the 1870’s. This point is still occasionally brought up today by Christians.

25 Mount Meru Even until the late 19 th century, the Buddhist worldview consisted in the existence of a literal Mount Meru and a flat earth, according to what was written in the texts. The Christians used this to call in question the credibility of Buddhism during the famous Christian-Buddhist debates in Sri Lanka in the 1870’s. This point is still occasionally brought up today by Christians.

26

27 Mount Meru Even until the late 19 th century, the Buddhist worldview consisted in the existence of a literal Mount Meru and a flat earth, according to what was written in the texts. The Christians used this to call in question the credibility of Buddhism during the famous Christian-Buddhist debates in Sri Lanka in the 1870’s. This point is still occasionally brought up today by Christians.

28 canadianchristianity.com September 2009 A Christian scholar weighs in on Buddhist beliefs By James A. Beverley RECOGNITION of the remarkable personality of the Dalai Lama is a separate issue from Christian assessment of Buddhism. There are strong reasons why Christians should be sceptical of Buddhism, whether Theravada (Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka), Mahayana (China, Japan, Korea), or Vajrayana (Tibet, Mongolia, Nepal). Science Though Buddhism claims to be scientific and rational, many theories in Buddhist scriptures have turned out to be completely erroneous, including medical teachings, astrological views and theories of cosmology. Regarding the latter, Buddhists of all schools taught for centuries – based on the alleged words of Gautama – that the earth is flat, and has at its centre a great mountain called Meru. The four faces of Meru are composed of precious stones, and the colour of the stone determines the colour of the sky in the four main continents. If you cannot trust the Buddha to get geographical facts right, why trust him on issues related to the supernatural?

29 Mount Meru During the Christian-Buddhist debates, the Buddhists stuck to their view of Mount Meru, claiming it still existed, perhaps in the North Pole, but not yet discovered. The Christians gave the Buddhists a globe and asked them to show where Mount Meru is. Of course they could not. Nowadays, Buddhists have abandoned the idea of a literal Mount Meru, regarding it as just a myth.

30 Mount Meru During the Christian-Buddhist debates, the Buddhists stuck to their view of Mount Meru, claiming it still existed, perhaps in the North Pole, but not yet discovered. The Christians gave the Buddhists a globe and asked them to show where Mount Meru is. Of course they could not. Nowadays, Buddhists have abandoned the idea of a literal Mount Meru, regarding it as just a myth.

31 Mount Meru During the Christian-Buddhist debates, the Buddhists stuck to their view of Mount Meru, claiming it still existed, perhaps in the North Pole, but not yet discovered. The Christians gave the Buddhists a globe and asked them to show where Mount Meru is. Of course they could not. Nowadays, Buddhists have abandoned the idea of a literal Mount Meru, regarding it as just a myth.

32 Conception and Birth Although celibate, Queen Maya conceives the Buddha as he entered her womb as a white elephant, in a dream. On the way to visit her father, the Queen gives birth while standing up with the infant emerging from the side of her body. Four great Brahma angels held out a golden net to receive the infant.

33 Conception and Birth Although celibate, Queen Maya conceives the Buddha as he entered her womb as a white elephant, in a dream. On the way to visit her father, the Queen gives birth while standing up with the infant emerging from the side of her body. Four great Brahma angels held out a golden net to receive the infant.

34 Conception and Birth Although celibate, Queen Maya conceives the Buddha as he entered her womb as a white elephant, in a dream. On the way to visit her father, the Queen gives birth while standing up with the infant emerging from the side of her body. Four great Brahma angels held out a golden net to receive the infant.

35 Conception and Birth Although celibate, Queen Maya conceives the Buddha as he entered her womb as a white elephant, in a dream. On the way to visit her father, the Queen gives birth while standing up with the infant emerging from the side of her body. Four great Brahma angels held out a golden net to receive the infant.

36

37 Conception and Birth Although celibate, Queen Maya conceives the Buddha as he entered her womb as a white elephant, in a dream. On the way to visit her father, the Queen gives birth while standing up with the infant emerging from the side of her body. Four great Brahma angels held out a golden net to receive the infant.

38 Conception and Birth Possible intention was to show that the Buddha was conceived without the need for sexual union between his parents. On the way to visit her father, the Queen gives birth while standing up with the infant emerging from the side of her body. Four great Brahma angels held out a golden net to receive the infant.

39 Conception and Birth Possible intention was to show that the Buddha was conceived without the need for sexual union between his parents. To show that the infant did not emerge from the “usual channels”, thus retaining his purity and cleanliness. Four great Brahma angels held out a golden net to receive the infant.

40 Conception and Birth Possible intention was to show that the Buddha was conceived without the need for sexual union between his parents. To show that the infant did not emerge from the “usual channels”, thus retaining his purity and cleanliness. Showing the Brahmins/Hindus that even their deities had to come down to receive the infant.

41 The First Seven Steps The infant then started to walk taking seven steps, with a lotus appearing at his feet with each step, and declared that this is His last birth. Likely a later addition to the story. But may be taken to mean that the Buddha has already successfully cultivated the 7 Factors of Enlightenment.

42

43 Symbolism An example is the Mahayana Goddess of Mercy : Kuan Yin. Eleven heads symbolizes the ability to hear the cries of suffering beings. Thousand arms symbolizes the ability to come to the aid of many.

44

45

46 Symbolism An example is the Mahayana Goddess of Mercy : Kuan Yin. Eleven heads symbolizes the ability to hear the cries of suffering beings. Thousand arms symbolizes the ability to come to the aid of many.

47 Symbolism An example is the Mahayana Goddess of Mercy : Kuan Yin. Eleven heads symbolizes the ability to hear the cries of suffering beings. Thousand arms symbolizes the ability to come to the aid of many.

48

49

50

51 The First Seven Steps The infant then started to walk taking seven steps, with a lotus appearing at his feet with each step, and declared that this is His last birth. Likely a later addition to the story. But may be taken to mean that the Buddha has already successfully cultivated the 7 Factors of Enlightenment.

52 The First Seven Steps The infant then started to walk taking seven steps, with a lotus appearing at his feet with each step, and declared that this is His last birth. Likely a later addition to the story. But may be taken to mean that the Buddha has already successfully cultivated the 7 Factors of Enlightenment.

53 Four Sights and Renunciation While growing up, his father shielded him from the realities of sickness, old age and death as he wished his son to be a great Universal Monarch instead of a Buddha.

54

55 Four Sights and Renunciation While growing up, his father shielded him from the realities of sickness, old age and death as he wished his son to be a great Universal Monarch instead of a Buddha.

56 Four Sights and Renunciation This is likely to be more embellishments, to make the Buddha’s story more interesting to the common people.

57 Four Sights and Renunciation However, despite the best efforts of his father to keep away the sick, old and dying, the Prince was shown these sights by the Devas. The Prince subsequently renounced and left the palace in the dead of the night with his horse and charioteer, with the Devas suppressing all the noise so that no one would be awakened.

58 Four Sights and Renunciation However, despite the best efforts of his father to keep away the sick, old and dying, the Prince was shown these sights by the Devas. The Prince subsequently renounced and left the palace in the dead of the night with his horse and charioteer, with the Devas suppressing all the noise so that no one would be awakened.

59

60 Four Sights and Renunciation However, despite the best efforts of his father to keep away the sick, old and dying, the Prince was shown these sights by the Devas. The Prince subsequently renounced and left the palace in the dead of the night with his horse and charioteer, with the Devas suppressing all the noise so that no one would be awakened.

61 Four Sights and Renunciation The Four Sights are mentioned only in the Commentaries and it more likely that the Prince realized these truths by himself and began to contemplate them on his own. The Prince subsequently renounced and left the palace in the dead of the night with his horse and charioteer, with the Devas suppressing all the noise so that no one would be awakened.

62 Four Sights and Renunciation The Four Sights are mentioned only in the Commentaries and it more likely that the Prince realized these truths by himself and began to contemplate them on his own. This was an age where leaving home on spiritual quests was an established part of Indian culture (Brahmins/Sramanas). The Prince renouncing was painful to his family, but not uncommon.

63 Four Sights and Renunciation Ariyapariyesana Sutta MN. 26 "So, at a later time, while still young, a black- haired young man endowed with the blessings of youth in the first stage of life; and while my parents, unwilling, were crying with tears streaming down their faces; I shaved off my hair & beard, put on the ochre robe and went forth from the home life into homelessness.”

64 Four Sights and Renunciation Ariyapariyesana Sutta MN. 26 "So, at a later time, while still young, a black- haired young man endowed with the blessings of youth in the first stage of life; and while my parents, unwilling, were crying with tears streaming down their faces; I shaved off my hair & beard, put on the ochre robe and went forth from the home life into homelessness.”

65 Four Sights and Renunciation Ariyapariyesana Sutta MN. 26 "So, at a later time, while still young, a black- haired young man endowed with the blessings of youth in the first stage of life; and while my parents, unwilling, were crying with tears streaming down their faces; I shaved off my hair & beard, put on the ochre robe and went forth from the home life into homelessness.”

66 Four Sights and Renunciation Ariyapariyesana Sutta MN. 26 "So, at a later time, while still young, a black- haired young man endowed with the blessings of youth in the first stage of life; and while my parents, unwilling, were crying with tears streaming down their faces; I shaved off my hair & beard, put on the ochre robe and went forth from the home life into homelessness.”

67 Sheltered by the Naga King On the 6 th week of Enlightenment, there was a great storm and the Naga King Mucalinda came out of his abode, and coiled round the body of the Buddha to protect him. At the end of the week, King Mucalinda appeared before the Buddha as a young man and with joined hands, paid his respects.

68 Sheltered by the Naga King On the 6 th week of Enlightenment, there was a great storm and the Naga King Mucalinda came out of his abode, and coiled round the body of the Buddha to protect him. At the end of the week, King Mucalinda appeared before the Buddha as a young man and with joined hands, paid his respects.

69

70

71

72

73

74 Sheltered by the Naga King On the 6 th week of Enlightenment, there was a great storm and the Naga King Mucalinda came out of his abode, and coiled round the body of the Buddha to protect him. At the end of the week, King Mucalinda appeared before the Buddha as a young man and with joined hands, paid his respects.

75 Sheltered by the Naga King There is actually a place in India called “Nagaland”, in the north-east populated by many different hill tribes. Also, the city of “Nagpur” means “City of the Snakes”. At the end of the week, King Mucalinda appeared before the Buddha as a young man and with joined hands, paid his respects.

76 Sheltered by the Naga King There is actually a place in India called “Nagaland”, in the north-east populated by many different hill tribes. Also, the city of “Nagpur” means “City of the Snakes”. So it is possible that a tribe or community of people called Nagas gave shelter to the Buddha in bad weather, and this became exaggerated or misunderstood.

77

78 The Request to Preach After the 7 th week of His enlightenment, the Buddha considered that he would not preach the Dhamma as it was too profound. Brahma Sahampati read the Buddha’s mind and appeared before him, pleading that the Buddha teach the Dhamma for those with little dust in their eyes.

79 The Request to Preach After the 7 th week of His enlightenment, the Buddha considered that he would not preach the Dhamma as it was too profound. Brahma Sahampati read the Buddha’s mind and appeared before him, pleading that the Buddha teach the Dhamma for those with little dust in their eyes.

80

81 The Request to Preach After the 7 th week of His enlightenment, the Buddha considered that he would not preach the Dhamma as it was too profound. Brahma Sahampati read the Buddha’s mind and appeared before him, pleading that the Buddha teach the Dhamma for those with little dust in their eyes.

82 The Request to Preach This would mean wasting all his aeons of cultivation to become a self-enlightened Buddha, and his own wish to teach the Dhamma. Brahma Sahampati read the Buddha’s mind and appeared before him, pleading that the Buddha teach the Dhamma for those with little dust in their eyes.

83 The Request to Preach This would mean wasting all his aeons of cultivation to become a self-enlightened Buddha, and his own wish to teach the Dhamma. In the Sutta Padhana, the Buddha before enlightenment, declared to Mara that “I shall wander from country to country guiding many disciples.” Snp 3.2.

84 The Request to Preach Possibly two explanations for this apparent contradiction : Brahma Sahampati is the personification of the Buddha’s compassion to teach the Dhamma to the world. This is a later insertion to elevate the Buddha above the Brahmin/Hindu gods as Brahma Sahampati pleads the Buddha to teach the Dhamma.

85 The Request to Preach Possibly two explanations for this apparent contradiction : Brahma Sahampati is the personification of the Buddha’s compassion to teach the Dhamma to the world. This is a later insertion to elevate the Buddha above the Brahmin/Hindu gods as Brahma Sahmapati pleads the Buddha to teach the Dhamma.

86 The Request to Preach Possibly two explanations for this apparent contradiction : Brahma Sahampati is the personification of the Buddha’s compassion to teach the Dhamma to the world. This is a later insertion to elevate the Buddha above the Brahmin/Hindu gods as Brahma Sahampati pleads the Buddha to teach the Dhamma.

87 Sariputta’s mother In the Jataka Commentaries, there is the story of Sariputta, returning home to his mother, a Brahmin, knowing that his death was near. At his deathbed, she saw Maha Brahma, King Sakka (Lord Indra) and other devas coming to pay respects to her son. So she thought how great must he be, and greater still the Buddha!

88 Sariputta’s mother In the Jataka Commentaries, there is the story of Sariputta, returning home to his mother, a Brahmin, knowing that his death was near. At his deathbed, she saw Maha Brahma, King Sakka (Lord Indra) and other devas coming to pay respects to her son. So she thought how great must he be, and greater still the Buddha!

89

90

91

92 Sariputta’s mother Needless to say, she was eventually converted to Buddhism by Sariputta… This story has even been told whereby it was explained that King Sakka is the same as the Taoist deity 天公 Tiān Gōng. So therefore implying that Taoists should convert to Buddhism!

93 Sariputta’s mother Needless to say, she was eventually converted to Buddhism by Sariputta… This story has even been told whereby it was explained that King Sakka is the same as the Taoist deity 天公 Tiān Gōng. So therefore implying that Taoists should convert to Buddhism!

94 Sariputta’s mother Needless to say, she was eventually converted to Buddhism by Sariputta… This story has even been told whereby it was explained that King Sakka is the same as the Taoist deity 天公 Tiān Gōng. So therefore implying that Taoists should convert to Buddhism!

95 Preaching the Abhidhamma Some years later, after performing the Twin Miracles, the Buddha ascended to the Tavitimsa heaven to preach the Abhidhamma to his mother and the devas. During the 3 months of his preaching, the Buddha would come down to earth for his alms, creating an image of himself in Tavatimsa to continue teaching.

96 Preaching the Abhidhamma Some years later, after performing the Twin Miracles, the Buddha ascended to the Tavitimsa heaven to preach the Abhidhamma to his mother and the devas. During the 3 months of his preaching, the Buddha would come down to earth for his alms, creating an image of himself in Tavatimsa to continue teaching.

97

98 Preaching the Abhidhamma Some years later, after performing the Twin Miracles, the Buddha ascended to the Tavitimsa heaven to preach the Abhidhamma to his mother and the devas. During the 3 months of his preaching, the Buddha would come down to earth for his alms, leaving an image of himself in Tavatimsa to continue teaching.

99 Preaching the Abhidhamma No mention of the Abhidhamma in the First Council. Scholars date its origins to around the 3 rd century BCE, or 100 – 200 years after the Buddha’s passing away. During the 3 months of his preaching, the Buddha would come down to earth for his alms, leaving an image of himself in Tavatimsa to continue teaching.

100 Preaching the Abhidhamma No mention of the Abhidhamma in the First Council. Scholars date its origins to around the 3 rd century BCE, or 100 – 200 years after the Buddha’s passing away. Likely to be a myth to raise the status of the Abhidhamma and promote its acceptance. It is a useful teaching but should be placed in the proper context.

101 Preaching the Abhidhamma After he finished preaching the Abhidhamma, the Deva king created a triple staircase made from silver, gold and precious gems so that the Buddha could descend to the human town of Sankassa. While descending, the Buddha used his powers to enable the millions of humans who had come to welcome him, to see the celestial beings accompanying him down.

102 Preaching the Abhidhamma After he finished preaching the Abhidhamma, the Deva king created a triple staircase made from silver, gold and precious gems so that the Buddha could descend to the human town of Sankassa. While descending, the Buddha used his powers to enable the millions of humans who had come to welcome him, to see the celestial beings accompanying him down.

103

104 Preaching the Abhidhamma After he finished preaching the Abhidhamma, the Deva king created a triple staircase made from silver, gold and precious gems so that the Buddha could descend to the human town of Sankassa. While descending, the Buddha used his powers to enable the millions of humans who had come to welcome him, to see the celestial beings accompanying him down.

105 Preaching the Abhidhamma All these were stories that impressed the people from an earlier and more innocent age. However, they are mentioned only in the Commentaries to the Abhidhamma, even later than the Abhidhamma itself. While descending, the Buddha used his powers to enable the millions of humans who had come to welcome him, to see the celestial beings accompanying him down.

106 Preaching the Abhidhamma All these were stories that impressed the people from an earlier and more innocent age. However, they are mentioned only in the Commentaries to the Abhidhamma, even later than the Abhidhamma itself. Contrary to the Buddha’s character and against his own injunctions against the display of psychic powers and miracles.

107 The Buddha’s Life and Teachings We should try to discern between : Facts Legends Symbolism This will reduce our ignorance and delusion and allow us to see things more clearly. Apply Kalama Sutta!

108 The Buddha’s Life and Teachings We should try to discern between : Facts Legends Symbolism This will reduce our ignorance and delusion and allow us to see things more clearly. Apply Kalama Sutta!

109 The Buddha’s Life and Teachings We should try to discern between : Facts Legends Symbolism This will reduce our ignorance and delusion and allow us to see things more clearly. Apply Kalama Sutta!

110 The Buddha’s Life and Teachings We should try to discern between : Facts Legends Symbolism This will reduce our ignorance and delusion and allow us to see things more clearly. Apply Kalama Sutta!

111 The Buddha’s Life and Teachings We should try to discern between : Facts Legends Symbolism This will reduce our ignorance and delusion and allow us to see things more clearly. Apply Kalama Sutta!

112 The Buddha’s Life and Teachings We should try to discern between : Facts Legends Symbolism This will reduce our ignorance and delusion and allow us to see things more clearly. Apply Kalama Sutta!

113 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

114 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

115 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

116 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

117 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

118 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

119 Banyan Tree Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: banyan Unusually shaped tree (Ficus benghalensis, or F. indica) of the fig genus in the mulberry family, native to tropical Asia. Aerial roots that develop from its branches descend and take root in the soil to become new trunks. The banyan reaches a height of up to 100 ft (30 m) and spreads laterally indefinitely.

120

121 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

122 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

123 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

124 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Proportioned like a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

125 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 These 32 Marks were pre-Buddhist ideas and were probably a later import into Buddhism as a means of convincing the Brahmins/Hindus that the Buddha was worthy of their respect and worship. It is unlikely for the Buddha to claim to have these outward physical characteristics when he clearly had the appearance of a normal human being.

126 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 These 32 Marks were pre-Buddhist ideas and were probably a later import into Buddhism as a means of convincing the Brahmins/Hindus that the Buddha was worthy of their respect and worship. It is unlikely for the Buddha to claim to have these outward physical characteristics when he clearly had the appearance of a normal human being.

127 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 There are many indications that the Buddha’s appearance was normal in every way : Upaka was impressed by the Buddha’s clear faculties and radiant complexion. King Ajatasattu unable to tell the Buddha from other monks. Maha Kassapa said to have a strong resemblance to the Buddha. Nanda often mistaken for the Buddha from a distance.

128 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 There are many indications that the Buddha’s appearance was normal in every way : Upaka was impressed by the Buddha’s clear faculties and radiant complexion. King Ajatasattu unable to tell the Buddha from other monks. Maha Kassapa said to have a strong resemblance to the Buddha. Nanda often mistaken for the Buddha from a distance.

129 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 There are many indications that the Buddha’s appearance was normal in every way : Upaka was impressed by the Buddha’s clear faculties and radiant complexion. King Ajatasattu unable to tell the Buddha from other monks. Maha Kassapa said to have a strong resemblance to the Buddha. Nanda often mistaken for the Buddha from a distance.

130 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 There are many indications that the Buddha’s appearance was normal in every way : Upaka was impressed by the Buddha’s clear faculties and radiant complexion. King Ajatasattu unable to tell the Buddha from other monks. Maha Kassapa said to have a strong resemblance to the Buddha. Nanda often mistaken for the Buddha from a distance.

131 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 There are many indications that the Buddha’s appearance was normal in every way : Upaka was impressed by the Buddha’s clear faculties and radiant complexion. King Ajatasattu unable to tell the Buddha from other monks. Maha Kassapa said to have a strong resemblance to the Buddha. Nanda often mistaken for the Buddha from a distance.

132 Dhatu-vibhanga Sutta MN 140 Ven. Pukkusati : “I have gone forth out of dedication to that Blessed One. That Blessed One is my teacher. It is of that Blessed One's Dhamma that I approve." The Buddha : "But where, monk, is that Blessed One staying now? Have you ever seen that Blessed One before? On seeing him, would you recognize him?“ Ven. Pukkusati : "No, my friend, I have never seen the Blessed One before, nor on seeing him would I recognize him."

133 Dhatu-vibhanga Sutta MN 140 Ven. Pukkusati : “I have gone forth out of dedication to that Blessed One. That Blessed One is my teacher. It is of that Blessed One's Dhamma that I approve." The Buddha : "But where, monk, is that Blessed One staying now? Have you ever seen that Blessed One before? On seeing him, would you recognize him?“ Ven. Pukkusati : "No, my friend, I have never seen the Blessed One before, nor on seeing him would I recognize him."

134 Dhatu-vibhanga Sutta MN 140 Ven. Pukkusati : “I have gone forth out of dedication to that Blessed One. That Blessed One is my teacher. It is of that Blessed One's Dhamma that I approve." The Buddha : "But where, monk, is that Blessed One staying now? Have you ever seen that Blessed One before? On seeing him, would you recognize him?“ Ven. Pukkusati : "No, my friend, I have never seen the Blessed One before, nor on seeing him would I recognize him."

135 Dhatu-vibhanga Sutta MN 140 Ven. Pukkusati : “I have gone forth out of dedication to that Blessed One. That Blessed One is my teacher. It is of that Blessed One's Dhamma that I approve." The Buddha : "But where, monk, is that Blessed One staying now? Have you ever seen that Blessed One before? On seeing him, would you recognize him?“ Ven. Pukkusati : "No, my friend, I have never seen the Blessed One before, nor on seeing him would I recognize him."

136 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Feet with level soles (flat feet) Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Tall as a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

137 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Good conduct of body, speech and mind Hands and feet are webbed Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Tall as a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

138 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Good conduct of body, speech and mind Generosity, beneficial conduct, impartiality Arms reaching down to the knees Male organs enclosed in a sheath Tall as a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

139 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Good conduct of body, speech and mind Generosity, beneficial conduct, impartiality Knows the nature of beings Male organs enclosed in a sheath Tall as a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

140 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Good conduct of body, speech and mind Generosity, beneficial conduct, impartiality Knows the nature of beings Reunites family, relatives and friends Tall as a banyan tree Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

141 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Good conduct of body, speech and mind Generosity, beneficial conduct, impartiality Knows the nature of beings Reunites family, relatives and friends Considerate for the welfare of beings Forty teeth Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

142 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Good conduct of body, speech and mind Generosity, beneficial conduct, impartiality Knows the nature of beings Reunites family, relatives and friends Considerate for the welfare of beings Abandoning wrong speech & rejoicing in peace Tongue can touch the forehead Head like a turban

143 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Good conduct of body, speech and mind Generosity, beneficial conduct, impartiality Knows the nature of beings Reunites family, relatives and friends Considerate for the welfare of beings Abandoning wrong speech & rejoicing in peace Practicing blameless & agreeable speech Head like a turban

144 32 Marks of a Great Man Lakkhana Sutta DN. 30 Good conduct of body, speech and mind Generosity, beneficial conduct, impartiality Knows the nature of beings Reunites family, relatives and friends Considerate for the welfare of beings Abandoning wrong speech & rejoicing in peace Practicing blameless & agreeable speech Foremost in skill and behaviour

145 Presenting Rational Buddhism The early Buddhists were well aware of the Brahmanical concept that a ‘Great Man' could be known by his physical characteristics. This concept was rejected by teachings such as the Lakkhana Sutta. The Sutta’s message is that our conduct of body, speech and mind are far more important than our physical characteristics.

146 Presenting Rational Buddhism The early Buddhists were well aware of the Brahmanical concept that a ‘Great Man' could be known by his physical characteristics. This concept was rejected by teachings such as the Lakkhana Sutta. The Sutta’s message is that our conduct of body, speech and mind are far more important than our physical characteristics.

147 Presenting Rational Buddhism The early Buddhists were well aware of the Brahmanical concept that a ‘Great Man' could be known by his physical characteristics. This concept was rejected by teachings such as the Lakkhana Sutta. The Sutta’s message is that our conduct of body, speech and mind are far more important than our physical characteristics.

148 Presenting Rational Buddhism However, the method employed by this Sutta is suitable only for a culture and society of Brahmanism or Hinduism. Such an approach is unlikely to work in today’s modern and educated society, and will probably even cast doubts on the credibility of Buddhism. It may also impede new entrants to Buddhism, and hinder the learning and development of practicing Buddhists.

149 Presenting Rational Buddhism However, the method employed by this Sutta is suitable only for a culture and society of Brahmanism or Hinduism. Such an approach is unlikely to work in today’s modern and educated society, and will probably even cast doubts on the credibility of Buddhism. It may also impede new entrants to Buddhism, and hinder the learning and development of practicing Buddhists.

150 Presenting Rational Buddhism However, the method employed by this Sutta is suitable only for a culture and society of Brahmanism or Hinduism. Such an approach is unlikely to work in today’s modern and educated society, and will probably even cast doubts on the credibility of Buddhism. It may also impede new entrants to Buddhism, and hinder the learning and development of practicing Buddhists.

151 Presenting Rational Buddhism Buddhism should not be presented as mythical, mysterious, fantastical and excessively difficult. Buddhism should nowadays be presented in a manner that is clear, down-to-earth, practical and above all, applicable to modern society and daily life. In this way, more and more people will be able to accept and truly practice the Dhamma in the way that the Buddha originally envisaged.

152 Presenting Rational Buddhism Buddhism should not be presented as mythical, mysterious, fantastical and excessively difficult. Buddhism should nowadays be presented in a manner that is clear, down-to-earth, practical and above all, applicable to modern society and daily life. In this way, more and more people will be able to accept and truly practice the Dhamma in the way that the Buddha originally envisaged.

153 Presenting Rational Buddhism Buddhism should not be presented as mythical, mysterious, fantastical and excessively difficult. Buddhism should nowadays be presented in a manner that is clear, down-to-earth, practical and above all, applicable to modern society and daily life. In this way, more and more people will be able to accept and truly practice the Dhamma in the way that the Buddha originally envisaged.

154 The Miracle of Instruction Sangarava Sutta AN 3.60 "Brahman, there are these three miracles. Which three? The miracle of psychic power, the miracle of telepathy, and the miracle of instruction. "As for the miracle where a certain person gives instruction in this way… this is the miracle that, of the three, appeals to me as the highest & most sublime.”

155 The Miracle of Instruction Sangarava Sutta AN 3.60 "Brahman, there are these three miracles. Which three? The miracle of psychic power, the miracle of telepathy, and the miracle of instruction.” "As for the miracle where a certain person gives instruction in this way… this is the miracle that, of the three, appeals to me as the highest & most sublime.”

156 The Miracle of Instruction Sangarava Sutta AN 3.60 "Brahman, there are these three miracles. Which three? The miracle of psychic power, the miracle of telepathy, and the miracle of instruction.” "As for the miracle where a certain person gives instruction in this way… this is the miracle that, of the three, appeals to me as the highest & most sublime.”

157 The Miracle of Instruction Do we need all these far-fetched and fantastical stories to impress people about the Buddha and about Buddhism? It is now a different day and age, where people are more intelligent and educated. Presenting Buddhism with excessive myths, legends and miracles only serves to degrade Buddhism and detract from the real teachings of the Buddha.

158 The Miracle of Instruction Do we need all these far-fetched and fantastical stories to impress people about the Buddha and about Buddhism? It is now a different day and age, where people are more intelligent and educated. Presenting Buddhism with excessive myths, legends and miracles only serves to degrade Buddhism and detract from the real teachings of the Buddha.

159 The Miracle of Instruction Do we need all these far-fetched and fantastical stories to impress people about the Buddha and about Buddhism? It is now a different day and age, where people are more intelligent and educated. Presenting Buddhism with excessive myths, legends and miracles only serves to degrade Buddhism and detract from the real teachings of the Buddha.

160 The Miracle of Instruction We should look deeper into any legends and miracles and if necessary, rationalize and put them in the proper context. Buddhists should now be more discerning and not just take everything on faith, even towards the scriptures. We should not forget to apply the Buddha’s advice in the Kalama Sutta, even to our own scriptures and teachings.

161 The Miracle of Instruction We should look deeper into any legends and miracles and if necessary, rationalize and put them in the proper context. Buddhists should now be more discerning and not just take everything on faith, even towards the scriptures. We should not forget to apply the Buddha’s advice in the Kalama Sutta, even to our own scriptures and teachings.

162 The Miracle of Instruction We should look deeper into any legends and miracles and if necessary, rationalize and put them in the proper context. Buddhists should now be more discerning and not just take everything on faith, even towards the scriptures. We should not forget to apply the Buddha’s advice in the Kalama Sutta, even to our own scriptures and teachings.

163 Kalama Sutta Do not rely on the following without further verification : Oral history or divine revelations Tradition Reports or rumours Scriptures or holy books Logical reasoning Philosophical reasoning Outward appearances One's own opinions Authorities or experts One's own teacher

164 Kalama Sutta Do not rely on the following without further verification : Oral history or divine revelations Tradition Reports or rumours Scriptures or holy books Logical reasoning Philosophical reasoning Outward appearances One's own opinions Authorities or experts One's own teacher

165 Kalama Sutta Do not rely on the following without further verification : Oral history or divine revelations Tradition Reports or rumours Scriptures or holy books Logical reasoning Philosophical reasoning Outward appearances One's own opinions Authorities or experts One's own teacher

166 Kalama Sutta Do not rely on the following without further verification : Oral history or divine revelations Tradition Reports or rumours Scriptures or holy books Logical reasoning Philosophical reasoning Outward appearances One's own opinions Authorities or experts One's own teacher

167 Kalama Sutta Do not rely on the following without further verification : Oral history or divine revelations Tradition Reports or rumours Scriptures or holy books Logical reasoning Philosophical reasoning Outward appearances One's own opinions Authorities or experts One's own teacher

168 Kalama Sutta Do not rely on the following without further verification : Oral history or divine revelations Tradition Reports or rumours Scriptures or holy books Logical reasoning Philosophical reasoning Outward appearances One's own opinions Authorities or experts One's own teacher

169 Kalama Sutta Do not rely on the following without further verification : Oral history or divine revelations Tradition Reports or rumours Scriptures or holy books Logical reasoning Philosophical reasoning Outward appearances One's own opinions Authorities or experts One's own teacher

170 Prepared by T Y Lee


Download ppt "Presenting Rational Buddhism. Buddhist Cosmology The 31 Planes of Existence Mount Meru."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google