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Introduction to the Abhidhamma. The Abhidhamma The Pali Canon, or the Tipitaka, consists of the collection of the three Pitakas : the Sutta Pitaka, the.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Abhidhamma. The Abhidhamma The Pali Canon, or the Tipitaka, consists of the collection of the three Pitakas : the Sutta Pitaka, the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the Abhidhamma

2 The Abhidhamma The Pali Canon, or the Tipitaka, consists of the collection of the three Pitakas : the Sutta Pitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Although traditionally attributed to the Buddha, the Abhidhamma Pitaka is generally accepted to be the work of later scholar monks who re-organized and tabulated His teachings into this set of 7 books.

3 The Abhidhamma The Pali Canon, or the Tipitaka, consists of the collection of the three Pitakas : the Sutta Pitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Although traditionally attributed to the Buddha, the Abhidhamma Pitaka is generally accepted to be the work of later scholar monks who re-organized and tabulated His teachings into this set of 7 books.

4 The Abhidhamma According to tradition in the Commentaries to the Abhidhamma, the Buddha ascended to the Tavatimsa heaven in three giant steps after performing the Twin Miracle. The Buddha then preached the Abhidhamma to his late mother (who was reborn in the heavenly realms), together with an audience of thousands of Devas.

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6 The Abhidhamma According to tradition in the Commentaries to the Abhidhamma, the Buddha ascended to the Tavatimsa heaven in three giant steps after performing the Twin Miracle. The Buddha then preached the Abhidhamma to his late mother (who was reborn in the heavenly realms), together with an audience of thousands of Devas.

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8 The Abhidhamma During the 3 months of his preaching, the Buddha would come down to earth for his alms, creating an image of himself in Tavatimsa to continue teaching. He taught the Abhidhamma to the Devas rather than to humans because to give a complete picture, it has to be expounded from the beginning to the end to the same audience in a single session.

9 The Abhidhamma During the 3 months of his preaching, the Buddha would come down to earth for his alms, creating an image of himself in Tavatimsa to continue teaching. He taught the Abhidhamma to the Devas rather than to humans because to give a complete picture, it has to be expounded from the beginning to the end to the same audience in a single session.

10 The Abhidhamma Since the full teaching requires 3 months, only the Devas and Brahmas could receive it fully, for they are capable of remaining in one posture for such a length of time. Back on the human realm for His alms, the Buddha would then relate it to Ven. Sariputta who then taught it to his own 500 pupils.

11 The Abhidhamma Since the full teaching requires 3 months, only the Devas and Brahmas could receive it fully, for they are capable of remaining in one posture for such a length of time. Back on the human realm for His alms, the Buddha would then relate it to Ven. Sariputta who then taught it to his own 500 pupils.

12 The Abhidhamma After He finished preaching the Abhidhamma, the Deva king created a triple staircase made from silver, gold and precious gems so that the Buddha could descend to the human town of Sankassa. While descending, the Buddha used his powers to enable the millions of humans who had come to welcome him, to see the celestial beings accompanying him down.

13 The Abhidhamma After He finished preaching the Abhidhamma, the Deva king created a triple staircase made from silver, gold and precious gems so that the Buddha could descend to the human town of Sankassa. While descending, the Buddha used his powers to enable the millions of humans who had come to welcome him, to see the celestial beings accompanying him down.

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16 The Abhidhamma Scholars however, generally date the Abhidhamma to about 100 to 200 years after the death of the Buddha. Also, there is no mention of the Abhidhamma in the First Council and the early schools all had different versions. Therefore, the Abhidhamma is likely not to represent the words of the Buddha directly, but those of his later disciples.

17 The Abhidhamma Scholars however, generally date the Abhidhamma to about 100 to 200 years after the death of the Buddha. Also, there is no mention of the Abhidhamma in the First Council and the early schools all had different versions. Therefore, the Abhidhamma is likely not to represent the words of the Buddha directly, but those of his later disciples.

18 The Abhidhamma Scholars however, generally date the Abhidhamma to about 100 to 200 years after the death of the Buddha. Also, there is no mention of the Abhidhamma in the First Council and the early schools all had different versions. Therefore, the Abhidhamma is likely not to represent the words of the Buddha directly, but those of his later disciples.

19 The Abhidhamma Nonetheless, it is a complex and fascinating set of texts which present the teachings in terms of “Ultimate Realities” as opposed to “Conventional Realities”. Consciousness is defined. Thoughts and mental states are analyzed and classified from an ethical standpoint. Mind and matter are discussed, with the aim of realizing Nibbana.

20 The Abhidhamma Nonetheless, it is a complex and fascinating set of texts which present the teachings in terms of “Ultimate Realities” as opposed to “Conventional Realities”. Consciousness is defined. Thoughts and mental states are analyzed and classified from an ethical standpoint. Mind and matter are discussed, with the aim of realizing Nibbana.

21 The Abhidhamma Consciousness / Cittas The Thought Process Mental Factors / Cetasikas The Last Thought Moment Form / Rupa

22 The Abhidhamma Consciousness / Cittas The Thought Process Mental Factors / Cetasikas The Last Thought Moment Form / Rupa

23 The Abhidhamma Consciousness / Cittas The Thought Process Mental Factors / Cetasikas The Last Thought Moment Form / Rupa

24 The Abhidhamma Consciousness / Cittas The Thought Process Mental Factors / Cetasikas The Last Thought Moment Form / Rupa

25 The Abhidhamma Consciousness / Cittas The Thought Process Mental Factors / Cetasikas The Last Thought Moment Form / Rupa

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27 31 Planes of Existence 4 Formless Planes Beings of Mind Only Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space 16 Form Planes Beings of Fine Material 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) 7 Planes of Sensual Happiness 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm 4 Planes of MiseryDemons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

28 31 Planes of Existence 4 Formless Planes Beings of Mind Only Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space 16 Form Planes Beings of Fine Material 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) 7 Planes of Sensual Happiness 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm 4 Planes of MiseryDemons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

29 31 Planes of Existence 4 Formless Planes Beings of Mind Only Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space 16 Form Planes Beings of Fine Material 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) 7 Planes of Sensual Happiness 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm 4 Planes of MiseryDemons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

30 31 Planes of Existence 4 Formless Planes Beings of Mind Only Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space 16 Form Planes Beings of Fine Material 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) 7 Planes of Sensual Happiness 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm 4 Planes of MiseryDemons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

31 31 Planes of Existence 4 Formless Planes Beings of Mind Only Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space 16 Form Planes Beings of Fine Material 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) Sensual Planes of Existence 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm Demons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

32 31 Planes of Existence 4 Formless Planes Beings of Mind Only Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space Form Planes of Existence 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) Sensual Planes of Existence 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm Demons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

33 31 Planes of Existence Formless Planes of Existence Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space Form Planes of Existence 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) Sensual Planes of Existence 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm Demons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

34 31 Planes of Existence Literal view : These are actual places of existence. Psychological view : These are states of mind. Composite view : These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.

35 31 Planes of Existence Literal view : These are actual places of existence. Psychological view : These are states of mind. Composite view : These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.

36 31 Planes of Existence Literal view : These are actual places of existence. Psychological view : These are states of mind. Composite view : These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.

37 31 Planes of Existence Literal view : These are actual places of existence. Psychological view : These are states of mind. Composite view : These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.

38 31 Planes of Existence Literal view : These are actual places of existence. Psychological view : These are states of mind. Composite view : These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.

39 31 Planes of Existence Literal view : These are actual places of existence. Psychological view : These are states of mind. Composite view : These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.

40 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

41 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

42 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

43 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

44 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

45 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

46 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

47 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

48 Consciousness / Cittas - Roots Unwholesome (Akusala) Wholesome (Kusala) Greed (Lobha) Non-Greed (Alobha) Hatred (Dosa) Non-Hatred (Adosa) Delusion (Moha) Non-Delusion (Amoha)

49 Consciousness / Cittas - Types Intention (Kamma) Resultant (Vipaka) Functional (Kriya)

50 Consciousness / Cittas - Types Intention (Kamma) Resultant (Vipaka) Functional (Kriya)

51 Consciousness / Cittas - Types Intention (Kamma) Resultant (Vipaka) Functional (Kriya)

52 Consciousness / Cittas - Types Intention (Kamma) Resultant (Vipaka) Functional (Kriya)

53 31 Planes of Existence Formless Planes of Existence Neither Perception nor Non-Perception Nothingness Infinite Consciousness Infinite Space Form Planes of Existence 5 Pure Abodes for Non-Returners 10 Brahma realms 1 realm of body only (no mind) Sensual Planes of Existence 6 Deva realms 1 Human realm Demons Hungry Ghosts Animals Hell

54 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

55 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

56 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

57 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

58 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

59 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

60 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

61 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

62 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

63 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

64 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

65 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

66 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

67 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

68 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

69 CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE Consciousness or Cittas (89) Sensual PlanesForm PlanesFormless PlanesSupramundane WholesomeResultantFunctional WholesomeResultantFunctional PathFruit WholesomeUnwholesomeRootless functional

70 Consciousness / Cittas According to the Abhidhamma, millions of thoughts run through our minds every second. Each thought consists of a stream of 17 thought moments which are types of consciousness or cittas. Therefore, there are billions of cittas occurring in our minds each second, which are too quick to be perceived.

71 Consciousness / Cittas According to the Abhidhamma, millions of thoughts run through our minds every second. Each thought consists of a stream of 17 thought moments which are types of consciousness or cittas. Therefore, there are billions of cittas occurring in our minds each second, which are too quick to be perceived.

72 Consciousness / Cittas According to the Abhidhamma, millions of thoughts run through our minds every second. Each thought consists of a stream of 17 thought moments which are types of consciousness or cittas. Therefore, there are billions of cittas occurring in our minds each second, which are too quick to be perceived.

73 The Thought Process A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses : 1. Seeing (Eye) 2. Hearing (Ear) 3. Smelling (Nose) 4. Tasting (Tongue) 5. Touching (Body) 6. Thinking (Mind)

74 The Thought Process A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses : 1. Seeing (Eye) 2. Hearing (Ear) 3. Smelling (Nose) 4. Tasting (Tongue) 5. Touching (Body) 6. Thinking (Mind)

75 The Thought Process A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses : 1. Seeing (Eye) 2. Hearing (Ear) 3. Smelling (Nose) 4. Tasting (Tongue) 5. Touching (Body) 6. Thinking (Mind)

76 The Thought Process A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses : 1. Seeing (Eye) 2. Hearing (Ear) 3. Smelling (Nose) 4. Tasting (Tongue) 5. Touching (Body) 6. Thinking (Mind)

77 The Thought Process A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses : 1. Seeing (Eye) 2. Hearing (Ear) 3. Smelling (Nose) 4. Tasting (Tongue) 5. Touching (Body) 6. Thinking (Mind)

78 The Thought Process A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses : 1. Seeing (Eye) 2. Hearing (Ear) 3. Smelling (Nose) 4. Tasting (Tongue) 5. Touching (Body) 6. Thinking (Mind)

79 The Thought Process A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses : 1. Seeing (Eye) 2. Hearing (Ear) 3. Smelling (Nose) 4. Tasting (Tongue) 5. Touching (Body) 6. Thinking (Mind)

80 The Thought Process Example of thought process of Seeing : Subconscious (3)Resultant Turning to sense door (1)Functional Sense consciousness (3)Resultant Determining consciousness (1)Functional Intention consciousness (7)Kamma Retention consciousness (2)Resultant

81 The Thought Process Example of thought process of Seeing : Subconscious (3)Resultant Turning to sense door (1)Functional Sense consciousness (3)Resultant Determining consciousness (1)Functional Intention consciousness (7)Kamma Retention consciousness (2)Resultant

82 The Thought Process Example of thought process of Seeing : Subconscious (3)Resultant Turning to sense door (1)Functional Sense consciousness (3)Resultant Determining consciousness (1)Functional Intention consciousness (7)Kamma Retention consciousness (2)Resultant

83 The Thought Process Example of thought process of Seeing : Subconscious (3)Resultant Turning to sense door (1)Functional Sense consciousness (3)Resultant Determining consciousness (1)Functional Intention consciousness (7)Kamma Retention consciousness (2)Resultant

84 The Thought Process Example of thought process of Seeing : Subconscious (3)Resultant Turning to sense door (1)Functional Sense consciousness (3)Resultant Determining consciousness (1)Functional Intention consciousness (7)Kamma Retention consciousness (2)Resultant

85 The Thought Process Example of thought process of Seeing : Subconscious (3)Resultant Turning to sense door (1)Functional Sense consciousness (3)Resultant Determining consciousness (1)Functional Intention consciousness (7)Kamma Retention consciousness (2)Resultant

86 The Thought Process Example of thought process of Seeing : Subconscious (3)Resultant Turning to sense door (1)Functional Sense consciousness (3)Resultant Determining consciousness (1)Functional Intention consciousness (7)Kamma Retention consciousness (2)Resultant

87 Mental Factors / Cetasikas These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types : 1. Universals 2. Occasionals 3. Unwholesome 4. Wholesome

88 Mental Factors / Cetasikas These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types : 1. Universals 2. Occasionals 3. Unwholesome 4. Wholesome

89 Mental Factors / Cetasikas These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types : 1. Universals 2. Occasionals 3. Unwholesome 4. Wholesome

90 Mental Factors / Cetasikas These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types : 1. Universals 2. Occasionals 3. Unwholesome 4. Wholesome

91 Mental Factors / Cetasikas These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types : 1. Universals 2. Occasionals 3. Unwholesome 4. Wholesome

92 Mental Factors / Cetasikas These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types : 1. Universals 2. Occasionals 3. Unwholesome 4. Wholesome

93 Mental Factors / Cetasikas 1.Universals (7) : These occur in all states of consciousness. For example, Contact and Attention. 2.Occasionals (6) : These may or may not arise together with consciousness. For example, Effort and Joy.

94 Mental Factors / Cetasikas 1.Universals (7) : These occur in all states of consciousness. For example, Contact and Attention. 2.Occasionals (6) : These may or may not arise together with consciousness. For example, Effort and Joy.

95 Mental Factors / Cetasikas 1.Unwholesome (14) : These are associated with the 3 unwholesome roots. For example, Envy and Selfishness. 2.Wholesome (25) : These are associated with the 3 wholesome roots. For example, Mindfulness and Compassion.

96 Mental Factors / Cetasikas 1.Unwholesome (14) : These are associated with the 3 unwholesome roots. For example, Envy and Selfishness. 2.Wholesome (25) : These are associated with the 3 wholesome roots. For example, Mindfulness and Compassion.

97 The Last Thought Moment According to the Theravada Abhidhamma, the last thought moment before death is of crucial importance as it determines the destination and condition of the next life. Therefore, a person who has done much good in his life, may have an unfortunate rebirth due to an adverse last thought moment, and vice versa.

98 The Last Thought Moment According to the Theravada Abhidhamma, the last thought moment before death is of crucial importance as it determines the destination and condition of the next life. Therefore, a person who has done much good in his life, may have an unfortunate rebirth due to an adverse last thought moment, and vice versa.

99 The Last Thought Moment However, this is against the general principle of kamma that one single thought moment can undo a life of good deeds, or conversely, make up for a life of evil. In any case, it is impossible to control or predict the last thought moment as there are billions of thought moments arising and passing away every second.

100 The Last Thought Moment However, this is against the general principle of kamma that one single thought moment can undo a life of good deeds, or conversely, make up for a life of evil. In any case, it is impossible to control or predict the last thought moment as there are billions of thought moments arising and passing away every second.

101 The Last Thought Moment It is much more likely that a person who has done many evil deeds will have the bad kamma of an unwholesome last thought moment, despite the conditions of death, leading to a less fortunate rebirth. In the same way, a person who has done many good things, will very likely have the good kamma of a wholesome last thought moment, leading to a fortunate rebirth, despite the conditions of death.

102 The Last Thought Moment It is much more likely that a person who has done many evil deeds will have the bad kamma of an unwholesome last thought moment, despite the conditions of death, leading to a less fortunate rebirth. In the same way, a person who has done many good things, will very likely have the good kamma of a wholesome last thought moment, leading to a fortunate rebirth, despite the conditions of death.

103 Form / Rupa All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things : 1. Earth element : Solidity 2. Water element : Fluidity 3. Fire element : Temperature 4. Wind element : Motion

104 Form / Rupa All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things : 1. Earth element : Solidity 2. Water element : Fluidity 3. Fire element : Temperature 4. Wind element : Motion

105 Form / Rupa All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things : 1. Earth element : Solidity 2. Water element : Fluidity 3. Fire element : Temperature 4. Wind element : Motion

106 Form / Rupa All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things : 1. Earth element : Solidity 2. Water element : Fluidity 3. Fire element : Temperature 4. Wind element : Motion

107 Form / Rupa All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things : 1. Earth element : Solidity 2. Water element : Fluidity 3. Fire element : Temperature 4. Wind element : Motion

108 Form / Rupa All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things : 1. Earth element : Solidity 2. Water element : Fluidity 3. Fire element : Temperature 4. Wind element : Motion

109 The Abhidhamma Although the Abhidhamma is not directly the words of the Buddha, most of its important elements can be traced to His teachings. Therefore, if placed in the proper context, we should learn the Abhidhamma to broaden our knowledge and acquire different perspectives of the Buddha’s teachings.

110 The Abhidhamma Although the Abhidhamma is not directly the words of the Buddha, most of its important elements can be traced to His teachings. Therefore, if placed in the proper context, we should learn the Abhidhamma to broaden our knowledge and acquire different perspectives of the Buddha’s teachings.

111 The Abhidhamma Knowledge of the Abhidhamma is helpful for meditation, especially for practitioners of Vipassana meditation. More importantly, it is useful and applicable for our daily lives. It can help us to see our own states of mind and recognize whether they are wholesome or unwholesome. In this way, we can be better Buddhists and people too.

112 The Abhidhamma Knowledge of the Abhidhamma is helpful for meditation, especially for practitioners of Vipassana meditation. More importantly, it is useful and applicable for our daily lives. It can help us to see our own states of mind and recognize whether they are wholesome or unwholesome. In this way, we can be better Buddhists and people too.

113 Prepared by T Y Lee


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