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Important Literary Terms For Keystone Preparation.

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Presentation on theme: "Important Literary Terms For Keystone Preparation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Important Literary Terms For Keystone Preparation

2 Inference & Generalization 0 “Making an inference” involves drawing a specific conclusion based on what a specific part of the text says or implies 0 “Making a generalization” involves drawing a broad conclusion about a topic from either a part of or the whole text

3 Inference & Generalization - Examples “But at that moment I glanced round at the crowd that had followed me. It was an immense crowd, two thousand at the least and growing every minute. It blocked the road for a long distance on either side. I looked at the sea of yellow faces above the garish clothes – faces all happy and excited over this bit of fun, all certain that the elephant was going to be shot. They were watching me as they would watch a conjurer about to perform a trick. They did not like me, but with the magical rifle in my hands I was momentarily worth watching. And suddenly I realized that I would have to shoot the elephant after all.” -George Orwell, “Shooting an Elephant” We can infer that the narrator feels _________________ about shooting the elephant: a) excitedb) hesitantc) scaredd) sorrowful

4 Author’s Purpose 0 Why did the author write this particular piece? What was the author intending to do? 0 Inform 0 Teach 0 Entertain 0 Persuade or convince

5 Bias 0 The presence of a positive or negative approach toward a topic 0 Ask yourself: is the author’s opinion about the subject obvious? Is it positive or negative in one way or another?

6 Dialect 0 A variety of language that is different from the standard in terms of pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary 0 This is usually specific to a geographical region, ethnicity, social organization, or socioeconomic status

7 Dialect - Example 0 The neighbor had put her head through the window to speak with my mother. It was then noon. “All you hear what happen to Foster? Why the house wash away clean clean clean, groundsel, everything gone clean. They put Miss Foster and the children in the guard house, and you know how many children Miss Foster got?” -George Lamming, “In the Castle of My Skin”

8 Diction 0 An author’s choice of words, phrases, sentence structures, and figurative language (simile, personification, imagery, etc) – all of which help create meaning and tone

9 Tone 0 The attitude or feelings of the author towards the audience, characters, subject, or the overall piece of text

10 Tone - Example The way a crow Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree Has given my heart A change of mood And saved some part Of a day I had rued. -Robert Frost, “Dust of Snow” The author’s tone in this poem is: a) mournfulb) hopefulc) angryd) joyful

11 Mood 0 The dominant emotions a reader experiences from a work – created through dialogue and literary elements 0 The mood might be different than the subject matter

12 Mood - Example “The ‘Red Death’ had long devastated the country. No pestilence had ever been so fatal, or so hideous. Blood was its Avatar and its seal --the redness and the horror of blood. There were sharp pains, and sudden dizziness, and then profuse bleeding at the pores, with dissolution. The scarlet stains upon the body and especially upon the face of the victim, were the pest ban which shut him out from the aid and from the sympathy of his fellow- men. And the whole seizure, progress and termination of the disease, were the incidents of half an hour.” -Edgar Allen Poe, “The Masque of the Red Death” The mood of this paragraph can BEST be described as: a) mysteriousb) frightfulc) excitedd) calm

13 Imagery 0 Descriptive or figurative language in a literary work 0 The use of language to create sensory impressions (5 senses)

14 Imagery - Example 0 “The room looked over the garden and other gardens: the sun had gone in; as the clouds sharpened and lowered, the trees and rank lawns seem already to smoke with dark.” 0 “Now, and then – for it felt, from not seeing him at this intense moment, as though she had never seen him at all – she verified his presence for these few moments longer buy putting out a hand, which he each time pressed, without very much kindness, and painfully, on to one of the breast buttons of his uniform. The cut of the button on the palm of her hand was, principally what she was to carry away.” -Elizabeth Bowen, “The Demon Lover”

15 Interpretation 0 If a question asks you to interpret something, it is asking you to give reasons through an explanation 0 You will need to provide specific examples to support your interpretation

16 Point of View 0 1 st person – the direct view of one character – will use words like “I, we, us,” etc 0 3 rd person limited – the direct view of one character – will use words like “he, she,” or the character’s name 0 3 rd person omniscient – the views of multiple characters are expressed from an outside perspective

17 Point of View - Examples Which is which? 0 “I could picture it. I have a habit of imagining the conversations between my friends. We went out to the Cafe Napolitain to have an aperitif and watch the evening crowd on the Boulevard.” – Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises 0 “His eyes were fixed upon Della; and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor disapproval, nor horror, nor any of the sentiments that she had been prepared for. He simply stared at her fixedly with that peculiar expression on his face.” –O. Henry, “The Gift of the Magi” 0 “He ran straight into the water and began swimming. He was a good swimmer.” –Doris Lessing, “Through the Tunnel”

18 Theme 0 A topic of discussion or work; a major idea broad enough to cover the entire scope of a literary work. 0 A theme may be stated or implied. 0 Clues to the theme may be found in the prominent and/or recurring ideas in a work.

19 Text Organization 0 The author’s method of structuring a text; the way a text is structured from beginning to end 0 In literary works, the structure could include: 0 Flashback 0 Foreshadowing 0 sequence 0 Question-answer 0 Cause-effect

20 Text Structure 0 Drama: a play; includes stage directions and dialogue 0 Novel/short story/article: a work that is written in regular prose 0 Poem: uses stanzas, rhyme, meter, and figurative language

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