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The Immune System By: Elizabeth Reed, David Chavez, and Kharletha Williams.

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Presentation on theme: "The Immune System By: Elizabeth Reed, David Chavez, and Kharletha Williams."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Immune System By: Elizabeth Reed, David Chavez, and Kharletha Williams

2 Introduction The immune system is the body's defense against infectious organisms and other invaders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease. The immune system is the body's defense against infectious organisms and other invaders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease.

3 The immune system is made out of various cells that control the protection of the body. Some devour antigens, some just figure out what they are, and some cells act as stations to tell the fighter cells where the antigen is. The immune system is made out of various cells that control the protection of the body. Some devour antigens, some just figure out what they are, and some cells act as stations to tell the fighter cells where the antigen is. What happens in the immune system? The cells in the immune system are “born” in the bone marrow, and some cells, like the T cell, move to the thymus to mature.

4 T Cells: T Cells: The T cell is a lymphocyte cell that fights off pathogens. But, the T cell has to be activated. When a diseased cell crosses the path of a T cell, the cell is activated and begins to fight off the pathogen that killed the cell. T cells are covered in receptor proteins that show the cell what pathogen to “swallow”. Also, a T cell can’t attack any virus. The proteins show the cell which one to kill. The T cell is a lymphocyte cell that fights off pathogens. But, the T cell has to be activated. When a diseased cell crosses the path of a T cell, the cell is activated and begins to fight off the pathogen that killed the cell. T cells are covered in receptor proteins that show the cell what pathogen to “swallow”. Also, a T cell can’t attack any virus. The proteins show the cell which one to kill. B cells: B cells: Memory B cells remember what pathogens they have fought and fight them quicker the next time. B cells also fight off antigens. B cells and T cells are also called lymphocytes. B cells are best known for making antibodies, which attach themselves to pathogens to mark them for other immune system cells to kill. Memory B cells remember what pathogens they have fought and fight them quicker the next time. B cells also fight off antigens. B cells and T cells are also called lymphocytes. B cells are best known for making antibodies, which attach themselves to pathogens to mark them for other immune system cells to kill. Like Tree cutting Like Tree cutting White Blood cells, or leukocytes, help in the blood stream to fight off antigens. They are the most common type of cell in the immune system. White Blood cells, or leukocytes, help in the blood stream to fight off antigens. They are the most common type of cell in the immune system. White Blood cell T cell B cell

5 What is the purpose of the immune system? The purpose of the immune system is to keep out infectious organisms (viruses, certain bacteria, fungi, etc.) that could invade the body. The purpose of the immune system is to keep out infectious organisms (viruses, certain bacteria, fungi, etc.) that could invade the body. But, some pathogens make it into the body. Most of them are devoured or destroyed before they can do much harm. But, some pathogens make it into the body. Most of them are devoured or destroyed before they can do much harm. Pathogen B cell

6 How does the immune system work? The immune system is a complex system of many cells and organs where the cells mature and travel through. These cells and organs are what make the immune system work. The immune system is a complex system of many cells and organs where the cells mature and travel through. These cells and organs are what make the immune system work. T CELLS have t cell receptors which helps the cell tell what pathogen it needs to kill. They also interact with MHC. MHC is a protein that resides on all cells and when that cell is attacked, the MHC attaches itself to a part of the pathogen and show it on the outside. So, if a T cell wanders by, it will realize that there is a pathogen inside the cell. But, for the T cell to react, one of its receptors has to find a match with one on the infected cell.T CELLS have t cell receptors which helps the cell tell what pathogen it needs to kill. They also interact with MHC. MHC is a protein that resides on all cells and when that cell is attacked, the MHC attaches itself to a part of the pathogen and show it on the outside. So, if a T cell wanders by, it will realize that there is a pathogen inside the cell. But, for the T cell to react, one of its receptors has to find a match with one on the infected cell. B CELLS make antibodies that attach themselves to pathogens to show T cells and other immune system cells which pathogen to kill.B CELLS make antibodies that attach themselves to pathogens to show T cells and other immune system cells which pathogen to kill. Immune system organs, such as the thymus and bone marrow are the source of immune cell maturity.Immune system organs, such as the thymus and bone marrow are the source of immune cell maturity. T cell receptor antibodies

7 Where is it located? The immune system is located all over the body. The immune system organs help transport and allow the cells in the immune system to grow. Here are some of the immune system organs: Adenoids (help filter out harmful microorganisms that can cause infection) Adenoids (help filter out harmful microorganisms that can cause infection) Tonsils (Two masses of tissue on either side of the throat) Tonsils (Two masses of tissue on either side of the throat) Thymus (an area where some types of immune cells mature. The thymus also grows smaller as we get older.) Thymus (an area where some types of immune cells mature. The thymus also grows smaller as we get older.) Spleen (filters out harmful substances from the blood and produces white blood cells.) Spleen (filters out harmful substances from the blood and produces white blood cells.) Peyer’s patches ( they destroy bacteria like the tonsils) Peyer’s patches ( they destroy bacteria like the tonsils) Bone marrow (a soft tissue filling the cavities of bones.) Appendix (the appendix protects the “good germs” in the digestive system from immune system patrollers.) Lymphatic vessels ( lymphatic vessels provide transportation for maturing cells trying to reach the thymus.) Lymph nodes (Small, rounded structures along the small vessels of the lymphatic system that produce disease-fighting white blood cells and filter out harmful microorganisms and toxins from the lymph).

8 How do you keep your immune system healthy? There are three ways to keep your immune system healthy. They are: There are three ways to keep your immune system healthy. They are: Don’t eat sugar or grains. ( sugar immediately decreases the strength of your immune system) Don’t eat sugar or grains. ( sugar immediately decreases the strength of your immune system) Get 6 or more hours of sleep.( for kids, the amount of hours should be higher because of development. Sleep is also necessary because when you sleep, your body goes in to a restful state where the immune system can work more effectively.) Get 6 or more hours of sleep.( for kids, the amount of hours should be higher because of development. Sleep is also necessary because when you sleep, your body goes in to a restful state where the immune system can work more effectively.) In my opinion, the best way to keep your immune system strong is to fight through your colds and flues! When you go to the doctor, they give an antibiotic(most of the time) that defeats the purpose of the immune system altogether. In return, the next time the bug comes around, your sickness could get worse because your immune system wasn’t prepared. In my opinion, the best way to keep your immune system strong is to fight through your colds and flues! When you go to the doctor, they give an antibiotic(most of the time) that defeats the purpose of the immune system altogether. In return, the next time the bug comes around, your sickness could get worse because your immune system wasn’t prepared.

9 What threatens the immune system? As I said in the slide previous to this, antibiotics can be bad for you. They help weaken the immune system after that specific virus has been terminated. As I said in the slide previous to this, antibiotics can be bad for you. They help weaken the immune system after that specific virus has been terminated. Some sicknesses of the immune system include: Some sicknesses of the immune system include: Allergy and asthma - inappropriate immune responses to substances that are usually harmless Allergy and asthma - inappropriate immune responses to substances that are usually harmless Allergyasthma Allergyasthma Graft-vs.-host disease - a life-threatening reaction in people receiving organ transplants Graft-vs.-host disease - a life-threatening reaction in people receiving organ transplants Immune deficiency diseases - disorders in which your resistance to disease becomes dangerously low Immune deficiency diseases - disorders in which your resistance to disease becomes dangerously low Autoimmune diseases - diseases causing your immune system to attack your own body's cells and tissues by mistake Autoimmune diseases - diseases causing your immune system to attack your own body's cells and tissues by mistake Autoimmune diseases Autoimmune diseases HIV and AIDS- a disease in which the immune system is destroyed beyond repair. HIV and AIDS- a disease in which the immune system is destroyed beyond repair.

10 Now… to sum this up… The immune system is a collection of cells and organs that protect the body from pathogens(viruses and bacteria). The immune system is a collection of cells and organs that protect the body from pathogens(viruses and bacteria). The immune system is mainly made up of white blood cells which can be classified into two groups: T cells and B cells. The immune system is mainly made up of white blood cells which can be classified into two groups: T cells and B cells. To keep your immune system healthy, sleep and avoid sugars and grains. To keep your immune system healthy, sleep and avoid sugars and grains. Some diseases of the immune system can be as insignificant as asthma, or as life threatening as AIDS. Some diseases of the immune system can be as insignificant as asthma, or as life threatening as AIDS.

11 Citation Woodburn, John H., and Lee J. Ames. Know your skin. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, Print. Woodburn, John H., and Lee J. Ames. Know your skin. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, Print. What does the appendix do? finally an answer!." THE MEDICAL NEWS | from News-Medical.Net - Latest Medical News and Research from Around the World. News-Medical.Net, 8 Oct Web. 30 Dec What does the appendix do? finally an answer!." THE MEDICAL NEWS | from News-Medical.Net - Latest Medical News and Research from Around the World. News-Medical.Net, 8 Oct Web. 30 Dec Clayton, Paul. "Dealing with health issues - Immune System Threats." Dr Paul Clayton doctor and nutrition scientist. Paul Clayton and Accelerated Learning Systems, n.d. Web. 30 Dec Clayton, Paul. "Dealing with health issues - Immune System Threats." Dr Paul Clayton doctor and nutrition scientist. Paul Clayton and Accelerated Learning Systems, n.d. Web. 30 Dec "Culture." Culture. LoveToKnow, Corp, n.d. Web. 30 Dec "Culture." Culture. LoveToKnow, Corp, n.d. Web. 30 Dec "Immune System and Disorders: MedlinePlus." National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 17 Dec Web. 30 Dec

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