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Ecosystem Interactions Environmental Science. What Shapes Ecosystems  AbioticBiotic  Abiotic and Biotic Factors  Habitat  Habitat – physical location.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystem Interactions Environmental Science. What Shapes Ecosystems  AbioticBiotic  Abiotic and Biotic Factors  Habitat  Habitat – physical location."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystem Interactions Environmental Science

2 What Shapes Ecosystems  AbioticBiotic  Abiotic and Biotic Factors  Habitat  Habitat – physical location where an organism lives  Niche  Niche – the use of the habitat by an organism (includes food, physical location, how it interacts with other organisms, etc.)

3 Species Interactions

4 Ways in Which Species Interact  These categories are based on whether each species causes benefit or harm to the other species.  Other types of interactions are possible.  Many interactions between species are indirect, some interactions do not fit in a category clearly, and other types seem possible but are rarely found. Therefore, many interactions are neither categorized nor well studied.

5 Competition  Competition  Competition – when different individuals or populations attempt to use the same resource Within a species – food, mates, territory Between species – food, water  Competition can occur even if the individuals never meet. Flowers competing for the same pollinators

6 Community Interactions - Competition  When members of different species compete for the same resources, we say that their niches overlap.  These species will divide up the resources either by time or space – called niche restriction  Ex. Warblers in coniferous trees will live only on certain levels of the trees  Ex. Diurnal v. Nocturnal insects - both need the same resources, but some are only active in the day and others at night

7 Community Interactions - Predation  Predator/Prey Relationship Predator Predator – organism that hunts/kills Prey Prey – organism that is food (e.g. cat and mouse)  Sometime one predator may also be another organism’s prey

8 Specialists v. Generalists  Species that eat mostly one type of prey are called specialists Ex. Canadian Lynx and the Snowshoe Hare  Generalists will eat whatever is easiest to find and capture Ex. Coyotes or Wolves

9 Symbiosis and Coevolution  Symbiosis  Symbiosis – two species who live closely together coevolve  Overtime, species in close relationships may coevolve. These species may evolve adaptations that reduce the harm or improve the benefit of the relationship.

10 Mutualism  Mutualism  Mutualism – symbiosis in which both organisms benefit – often each species depends on the other  Ex. Flowers and their pollinators

11 Commensalism  Commensalism  Commensalism – symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.  Even seemingly harmless activity, however, might have an effect on another species. Ex. Barnacles on a whale’s skin or Birds nesting in trees

12 Parasitism  Parasitism  Parasitism – symbiosis in which one organism is helped and one is harmed  Parasite  Parasite – the organism that feeds on another organism  Host  Host – the organism parasite takes its nourishment from Ex. Fleas and ticks The difference between a parasite and a predator is that a parasite does not usually kill its host.


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