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Unit 3: Text A How to Change Your Point of View About NetEase - 公司简介 - 联系方法 - 招聘信息 - 客户服务 - 相关法律 网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2001 公司简介 联系方法 招聘信息 客户服务 相关法律 21st Century.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: Text A How to Change Your Point of View About NetEase - 公司简介 - 联系方法 - 招聘信息 - 客户服务 - 相关法律 网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2001 公司简介 联系方法 招聘信息 客户服务 相关法律 21st Century."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit 3: Text A How to Change Your Point of View About NetEase - 公司简介 - 联系方法 - 招聘信息 - 客户服务 - 相关法律 网易公司版权所有 © 公司简介 联系方法 招聘信息 客户服务 相关法律 21st Century College English: Book 4

3 Unit 3: Text A How to Change Your Point of View Lead-in Activities Lead-in ActivitiesLead-in ActivitiesLead-in Activities Text Organization Text OrganizationText OrganizationText Organization Reading & Writing Skills Reading & Writing SkillsReading & Writing SkillsReading & Writing Skills Language Points Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Guided Practice Guided PracticeGuided PracticeGuided Practice Assignment AssignmentAssignment

4 Lead-in Activities Questions for Discussion Tell your group or class about a time you encountered a particularly difficult, frustrating problem. How did you go about trying to solve it? Were you ultimately successful? Tell your group or class about a time you encountered a particularly difficult, frustrating problem. How did you go about trying to solve it? Were you ultimately successful? Is there anything different between eastern style and western style of thinking? If so, what are the typical differences? Is there anything different between eastern style and western style of thinking? If so, what are the typical differences?

5 The structure of Text A I.Solving the problem by changing one’s point of view. II.Lateral thinking as a technique for changing one’s point of view. III.Making vital shift in emphasis instead of attacking it head-on. IV.Lateral thinking is Eastern flanking maneuver. V.Looking at a crisis from an opportunity point of view is lateral thinking. Para. 1-3 Para. 4-8 Para Para. 13 Para. 14 Text Organization

6 A good expository essay is marked by a strong connection between its general assertions and the specific examples used to support that assertion. Usually, when writing, we begin with a generalization and then support it with specifics. However, it is not always necessary to follow this order. (example in text A ) The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of view to solve the problem. →He moves on to present the problem with our thinking. → Then he gives a generalization of the example. Reading & Writing Skills

7 Language Points How to Change Your Point of View Your Point of View How to Change Your Point of View Your Point of View Text A:

8 How to Change Your Point of View Change Your Point of ViewChange Your Point of View By Caroline Seebohm 1 Dr. Edward Jenner was busy trying to solve the problem of smallpox. After studying case after case, he still found no possible cure. He had reached an impasse in his thinking. At this point, he changed his tactics. Instead of focusing on people who had smallpox, he switched his attention to people who did not have smallpox. It turned out that dairymaids apparently never got the disease. From the discovery that harmless cowpox gave protection against deadly smallpox came vaccination and the end of smallpox as a scourge in the western world. Dr. Edward Jenner After studying case after caseHe had reached an impasse in his thinkingtacticsFrom the discovery that harmless cowpox gave protection against deadly smallpox came vaccination and the end of smallpox as a scourge in the western world Dr. Edward Jenner After studying case after caseHe had reached an impasse in his thinkingtacticsFrom the discovery that harmless cowpox gave protection against deadly smallpox came vaccination and the end of smallpox as a scourge in the western world Language Points

9 2 We often reach an impasse in our thinking. We are looking at a problem and trying to solve it and it seems there is a dead end. It is on these occasions that we become tense, we feel pressured, overwhelmed, in a state of stress. We struggle vainly, fighting to solve the problem. fighting to solve the problemfighting to solve the problem Language Points

10 3 Dr. Jenner, however, did something about this situation. He stopped fighting the problem and simply changed his point of view Dr. Jenner, however, did something about this situation. Dr. Jenner, however, did something about this situation. — from his patients to dairy maids. Picture the process going something like this: Suppose the brain is a computer. This computer has absorbed into its memory bank all your history, your experiences, your training, your information received through life; and it is programmed according to all this data. To change your point of view, you must reprogram your computer, thus freeing yourself to take in new ideas and develop new ways of looking at things. Dr. Jenner, in effect, by reprogramming his computer, erased the old way of looking at his smallpox problem and was free to receive new alternatives. Picture the process going something like thisthus freeing yourself to take in new ideas and develop new ways of looking at thingsin effect receive new alternativesPicture the process going something like thisthus freeing yourself to take in new ideas and develop new ways of looking at thingsin effect receive new alternatives Language Points

11 4 That’s all very well, you may say, but how do we actually do that? 5 Doctor and philosopher Edward de Bono has come up with a technique for changing our point of view, and he calls it Lateral Thinking. Doctor and philosopher Edward de Bono Doctor and philosopher Edward de Bono Language Points

12 6 The normal Western approach to a problem is to fight it. The saying, ‘‘When the going gets tough, the tough get going,’’ is typical of this aggressive attitude toward problem-solving. No matter what the problem is, or the techniques available for solving it, the framework produced by our Western way of thinking is fight. Dr. de Bono calls this vertical thinking; the traditional, sequential, Aristotelian thinking of logic, moving firmly from one step to the next, like toy blocks being built one on top of the other. The flaw is, of course, that if at any point one of the steps is not reached, or one of the toy blocks is incorrectly placed, then the whole structure collapses. Impasse is reached, and frustration, tension, feelings of fight take over. When the going gets tough, the tough get goingthis aggressive attitude toward problemthe framework produced by our Western way of thinking Aristotelianfeelings of fight take overWhen the going gets tough, the tough get goingthis aggressive attitude toward problemthe framework produced by our Western way of thinking Aristotelianfeelings of fight take over Language Points

13 7 Lateral thinking, Dr. de Bono says, is a new technique of thinking about things — a technique that avoids this fight altogether, and solves the problem in an entirely unexpected fashion. 8 In one of Sherlock Holmes’s cases, his assistant, Dr. Watson, pointed out that a certain dog was of no importance to the case because it did not appear to have done anything. Sherlock Holmes took the opposite point of view and maintained that the fact the dog had done nothing was of the utmost significance, for it should have been expected to do something, and on this basis he solved the case. Sherlock HolmesDr. Watsonwas of no importanceof the utmost significanceit should have been expectedon this basis he solved the caseSherlock HolmesDr. Watsonwas of no importanceof the utmost significanceit should have been expectedon this basis he solved the case Language Points

14 9 Lateral thinking sounds simple. And it is. Once you have solved a problem laterally, you wonder how you could ever have been hung up on it. The key is making that vital shift in emphasis, that sidestepping of the problem, instead of attacking it head-on. And it isbeen hung up onThe key is making that vital shift in emphasis, that sidestepping of the problem, instead of attacking it head-onAnd it isbeen hung up onThe key is making that vital shift in emphasis, that sidestepping of the problem, instead of attacking it head-on 10 Dr. A. A. Bridger, psychiatrist at Columbia University and in private practice in New York, explains how lateral thinking works with his patients. ‘‘Many people come to me wanting to stop smoking, for instance,’’ he says. ‘‘Most people fail when they are trying to stop smoking because they wind up telling themselves, ‘No, I will not smoke; no, I shall not smoke; no, I will not; no, I cannot...’ It’s a fight and what happens is you end up smoking more. in private practice in New Yorkwind upend upin private practice in New Yorkwind upend up Language Points

15 11 ‘‘So instead of looking at the problem from the old ways of no, and fighting it, I show them a whole new point of view — that you are your body’s keeper, and your body is something through which you experience life. If you stop to think about it, there’s really something helpless about your body. It can do nothing for itself. It has no choice, it is like a baby’s body. You begin then a whole new way of looking at it — ‘I am now going to take care of myself, and give myself some respect and protection, by not smoking.’ you are your body’s keeper, and your body is something through which you experience lifestop to think about ityou are your body’s keeper, and your body is something through which you experience lifestop to think about it Language Points

16 12 ‘‘There is a Japanese parable about a donkey tied to a pole by a rope. The rope rubs tight against his neck. The more the donkey fights and pulls on the rope, the tighter and tighter it gets around his throat — until he winds up dead. On the other hand, as soon as he stops fighting, he finds that the rope gets slack, he can walk around, maybe find some grass to eat... That’s the same principle: The more you fight something the more anxious you become — the more you’re involved in a bad pattern, the more difficult it is to escape pain. winds up deadyou’re involved in a bad patternwinds up deadyou’re involved in a bad pattern Language Points

17 13 ‘‘Lateral thinking,’’ Dr. Bridger goes on, ‘‘is simply approaching a problem with what I would call an Eastern flanking maneuver. You know, when a Zen archer wants to hit the target with a bow and arrow, he doesn’t concentrate on the target, he concentrates rather on what he has in his hands, so when he lets the arrow go, his focus is on the arrow, rather than the target. This is what an Eastern flanking maneuver implies — instead of approaching the target directly, you approach it from a sideways point of view — or laterally instead of vertically.’’ an Eastern flanking maneuverZensidewaysan Eastern flanking maneuverZensideways Language Points

18 14 ‘‘I think the answer lies in that direction,’’ affirms Dr. Bridger. ‘‘Take the situation where someone is in a crisis. The Chinese word for crisis is divided into two characters, one meaning danger and the other meaning opportunity. We in the Western world focus only upon the ‘danger’ aspect of crisis. Crisis in Western civilization has come to mean danger, period. And yet the word can also mean opportunity. Let us now suggest to the person in crisis that he cease concentrating so upon the dangers involved and the difficulties, and concentrate instead upon the opportunity — for there is always opportunity in crisis. Looking at a crisis from an opportunity point of view is a lateral thought.’’ I think the answer lies in that directionTake the situationCrisis in Western civilization has come to mean danger, periodLooking at a crisis from an opportunity point of view is a lateral thoughtI think the answer lies in that directionTake the situationCrisis in Western civilization has come to mean danger, periodLooking at a crisis from an opportunity point of view is a lateral thought Language Points

19 Dr. Edward Jenner (1749 – 1823) 爱德华 詹纳 (1749  1823 ,英国医生, 发现牛痘对天花有免疫力, 1796 年试 验牛痘接种成功 ) 验牛痘接种成功 ) Text-related information For centuries smallpox was a scourge. When late in the 18 th century Edward Jenner, a young physician, startled the medical profession by claiming that people who had has cowpox would not get smallpox, his theory was scorned. After many years, however, doctors began using Jenner’s method, based upon this theory, of preventing smallpox. He called the method vaccination. By 1979 the disease was declared eradicated. For centuries smallpox was a scourge. When late in the 18 th century Edward Jenner, a young physician, startled the medical profession by claiming that people who had has cowpox would not get smallpox, his theory was scorned. After many years, however, doctors began using Jenner’s method, based upon this theory, of preventing smallpox. He called the method vaccination. By 1979 the disease was declared eradicated.

20 changed one ’ s point of view — change one’s perspective Examples: The book looks at college life from a student’s point of view.The book looks at college life from a student’s point of view. Please look at it from my point of view.Please look at it from my point of view. point of view — way of considering or judging a thing, person, event, etc.

21 after studying case after case —after making researches on one case after another Examples: She was definitely a mental case.She was definitely a mental case. When he first went for treatment at the hospital he seemed to be a hopeless case (= a person who could not be cured).When he first went for treatment at the hospital he seemed to be a hopeless case (= a person who could not be cured). case — in this context it refers to a person with a particular illness, a patient

22 He had reached an impasse in his thinking. impasse — n. a position from which progress is impossible; deadlock 僵局;死胡同 Examples: The negotiation reached an impasse.The negotiation reached an impasse. The development of this new drug has come to a dead end because of doubts about its safety.The development of this new drug has come to a dead end because of doubts about its safety.

23 He had reached an impasse in his thinking. Cf. impasse, dead end Impasse means a situation in which progress has stopped completely, esp. because people cannot agree on what to do next, while dead end, refers to a situation in which it is impossible to make any further progress in what one is trying to do. More to learn More to learn

24 He had reached an impasse in his thinking. Paraphrase? Key He had got into a difficult situation where he could think of no solution to the problem. He had got into a difficult situation where he could think of no solution to the problem.

25 tactics —n. a method or process of carrying out a scheme or achieving some end Examples: Her tactics were to divide his friends and therefore strengthen her own position. Her tactics were to divide his friends and therefore strengthen her own position. That's a smart tactic to get the job. That's a smart tactic to get the job. Tactics (uncountable noun) has always been their strong point in making war. Tactics (uncountable noun) has always been their strong point in making war. Note: When tactics is used as an uncountable noun it refers to the science of arranging and maneuvering military or naval forces.

26 From the discovery that harmless cowpox gave protection against deadly smallpox came vaccination and the end of smallpox as a scourge in the western world. come from — be the result of 天花 接种疫苗 牛痘 More to learn More to learnExamples: Depression often comes from bad eating.Depression often comes from bad eating. That’s what comes from sleeping late, you have a headache all morning.That’s what comes from sleeping late, you have a headache all morning.

27 From the discovery that … came vaccination and the end of smallpox as a scourge in the western world. —Vaccination was invented and smallpox, a disaster in the West countries, was eliminated as a result of the discovery that… Translate? Key: 从无害的牛痘能预防致命的天花这一发现产生了疫苗的 接种,天花作为一种灾难在西方世界结束了。

28 fighting to solve the problem —attack the problem head-on Examples: He stopped fighting to solve the problem and simply changed his point of view…(paragraph 3 in the text)He stopped fighting to solve the problem and simply changed his point of view…(paragraph 3 in the text) The normal Western approach to a problem is to fighting it.(paragraph 5)The normal Western approach to a problem is to fighting it.(paragraph 5) The framework produce by our European way of thinking is fighting.(paragraph 5 in the text)The framework produce by our European way of thinking is fighting.(paragraph 5 in the text)

29 Dr. Jenner … did something about this situation. —Dr. Jenner … took some action to change the situation. Examples: I’m glad somebody finally did something about the crime problem.I’m glad somebody finally did something about the crime problem. Don’t just stand there, do something, can’t you see he’s hurt?Don’t just stand there, do something, can’t you see he’s hurt?

30 picture the process going something like this: … —Imagine that the steps to be taken (in changing his point view) are more or less like this… something like 1)rather like 2)(Infml) about Examples: The stone shapes something like a horse.The stone shapes something like a horse. There are something like 1,000 people in the lecture hall.There are something like 1,000 people in the lecture hall. rather like about

31 thus freeing yourself to take in new ideas and develop new ways of looking at things —thus removing old ideas from your mind to absorb new ideas and take up new approaches to problems take in — receive; absorb Examples: He didn’t take in what I’d warned him of.He didn’t take in what I’d warned him of. It was an interesting class but there was just too much to take in.It was an interesting class but there was just too much to take in.

32 in effect —in fact Example: In effect he has no choice. In effect he has no choice. The two systems are, In effect, identical.The two systems are, In effect, identical. Make a sentence with the phrase: ?

33 receive new alternatives —consider other possibilities; take in new ideas Make a sentence with the phrase: ? Example: There are several alternatives to your plan.There are several alternatives to your plan. n. 选择

34 Doctor and philosopher Edward de Bono —Edward de Bono who was both a doctor and a philosopher 爱德华 · 德 · 博诺 ( ,美国哲学家 )

35 When the going gets tough, the tough get going. — As the situation becomes more challenging, the strong people work harder. Example: The going was rough through the mountain.The going was rough through the mountain. I decided to sell my stock while the going was still god (I.e. while the conditions were favorable). I decided to sell my stock while the going was still god (I.e. while the conditions were favorable). going — n. condition of a path of a travel or progress More to learn More to learn

36 When the going gets tough, the tough get going. tough a. —(of a problem, etc.) difficult, full of hardship More to learn More to learntough — a. (of a person) able to endure hardship; not easily defeated or injured (the tough = the tough people) Examples: My boss has given me a tough job.My boss has given me a tough job. He has a reputation for being resolute and tough.He has a reputation for being resolute and tough. You have to be tough to be successful in your career. You have to be tough to be successful in your career.

37 When the going gets tough, the tough get going. Examples: We’d better get going or we’ll be late.We’d better get going or we’ll be late. I’m really getting anxious to get going.I’m really getting anxious to get going. get going — start to move away from a place;start doing something

38 This aggressive attitude toward… — this determined approach to… Examples: Thanks to our aggressive marketing tactics, our sales have risen sharply this year.Thanks to our aggressive marketing tactics, our sales have risen sharply this year. If you want to be a success in business, you must be aggressive.If you want to be a success in business, you must be aggressive. aggressive —not afraid of opposition 敢作敢为的

39 the framework produced by our western way of thinking — the basic ideas that come from our western way of thinking. Examples: Any changes that you make must fit into the existing framework.Any changes that you make must fit into the existing framework. Negotiators are still trying to find a framework for a long-term peace agreement.Negotiators are still trying to find a framework for a long-term peace agreement. framework — a set of rules, ideas, or beliefs which you use in order to deal with problems or to decide what to do

40 Text-related information Aristotle ( BC) Aristotelian 亚里士多德 ( 式 ) 的 One of the greatest thinkers of all time was Aristotle, an ancient Greek philosopher. His work in the natural and social sciences greatly influenced virtually every area of modern thinking. One of Aristotle’s most important contributions was defining and classifying the various branches of knowledge. He sorted them into physics, metaphysics, psychology, rhetoric, poetics, and logic, and thus laid the foundation of most of the sciences of today.

41 … feelings of fight take over. Examples: They want me to take over when Mr. Evans leaves.They want me to take over when Mr. Evans leaves. prices seem to go on rising whichever political party takes over.prices seem to go on rising whichever political party takes over. take over — acquire or gain control Make a sentence with the phrase: ?

42 … was of no importance The of (+ adjective) + noun structure is often used as a postmodifier or predicative of a sentence in place of an adjective with the similar meaning (modified by an adverb).The preposition of in the structure means “consisting of” or “having”, and the noun denotes a quality like importance, significance, use, value, etc. The noun structure may sound more formal than the adjective. The matter is important. The subject is not very interesting. Sitting with your head bent forward might prove to helpful. The matter is of importance. Sitting with your head bent forward might prove to be of some help. The subject is of little interest. ? ? ? Rewrite the following sentences:

43 Text-related information 歇洛克 · 福尔摩斯 ( 英国作家 A. Conan Doyle 所著系列侦探小说中的虚构主 人公,一位推理能力极强的私家大 侦探 ) Sherlock Holmes is the leading character in Conan Doyle's detective stories, the marvelous amateur detective who always unravels the most battling mysteries. Sherlock Holmes Watson — 华生 ( 福尔摩斯的助手 )

44 Text-related information Watson — 华生 ( 福尔摩斯的助手 )

45 was of the utmost significance —was of the greatest importance for “be of + (adj) + noun” structure see was of no importance was of no importancewas of no importance greatest, most extreme importance

46 It should have been expected The auxiliary verb should is used with the perfect infinitive in the pattern should (not) have done sth. to talk about things which, although they were supposed, intended, or expected to happen (or not to happen), actually did not happen (or happened). Examples: Yesterday should have been the start of the soccer season.Yesterday should have been the start of the soccer season. The plant's dead. Maybe I should have given it moreThe plant's dead. Maybe I should have given it morewater. The taxi should have arrived at 8:30.The taxi should have arrived at 8:30. You shouldn't have invited Mary to the party.You shouldn't have invited Mary to the party. More to do More to do

47 VI.Complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese into English. 1.Your information is of the utmost importance. You (本该当即告 诉我) _________________________________________________ 。 Key: 2.If you wanted soup for lunch you (本该事先告诉我) _____ ____________________________________________ 。 Key: should have told me at once Should have told me beforehand Structure

48 VI.Complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese into English. 3.She’s just been a slave doing that job and (早该离开那家公司 了) _________________________________________________. Key: 4.The spokesman admitted that the government’s thoughtless policy had caused a crisis in some areas of the country — a crisis that (根本就不该发生) ___________________________ 。 Key: should have left the company long ago should have happened Structure

49 VI.Complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese into English. 5.The plane (本该十分钟前起飞) __________________________ but one of the passengers had a heart attack just before the plane took off 。 Key: 6.It happened that Jim was out when I arrived at his home. I (应该 打个电话) __________________________ before I went there 。 Key: should have left ten minutes ago should have phoned Structure

50 … and on this basis he solve the case. — b ased on his opposite point of view he managed to find the solution to the criminal case. Translate these phrases: solve the case solve the case solve the problems solve the problems solve a mathematic equation solve a mathematic equation 破案 解决问题 解数学方程式

51 And it is. — And it is in fact simple.

52 be/get hung up on/about sth — be upset or anxious about sth; be puzzled by sth Examples: She’s really hung up on that young man.She’s really hung up on that young man. The boy is badly hung up on the way his mother treated him.The boy is badly hung up on the way his mother treated him.

53 Examples: He avoided the blow by sidestepping.He avoided the blow by sidestepping. The speaker sidestepped the question by saying it would take him too long to answer it.The speaker sidestepped the question by saying it would take him too long to answer it. sidestep — v. to take a set to the side to avoid; avoid (an unwelcome question, duty, etc. The key is making that vital shift in emphasis, that sidestepping of the problem, instead of attacking it head-on.

54 Paraphrase? Key The important thing is to make major changes in your perspective, to approach the problem sideways, rather than in a direct manner.The important thing is to make major changes in your perspective, to approach the problem sideways, rather than in a direct manner.

55 in private practice in New York — running a private clinic in New York Examples: Some prefer to consult a doctor with a private practice.Some prefer to consult a doctor with a private practice. He had a solid career in a country law practice.He had a solid career in a country law practice. These doctors lived on their earnings from private practice.These doctors lived on their earnings from private practice. practice —A doctor's or a lawyer's practice is a place where they work. Practice is also used as an unaccountable noun to refer to the business of a doctor or lawyer.

56 They wind up telling themselves… — in the end they tell themselves… Examples: It wouldn't surprise me you he winds up in jail.It wouldn't surprise me you he winds up in jail. If I stay here long enough, I will wind up marrying her.If I stay here long enough, I will wind up marrying her. wind up a companywind up a company wind up the speechwind up the speech wind up one’s affairswind up one’s affairs wind up (compare with end up) — come to or bring to an end Compare: end up; wind up end upend up 结束演讲 结束私务 清理一家公司

57 you end up smoking more — in the end you smoke more Examples: They have ended up in prison for terrorist activities.They have ended up in prison for terrorist activities. We ended up taking a taxi there.We ended up taking a taxi there. Compare: end up; wind up wind upwind up To end up implies that the place or situation your are in may not be where you originally intended to be. end up — finish in a particular place or way

58 You are your body’s keeper, and your body is something through which you experience life — You are in full control of your own body, and your life depends on your body keeper —a person who guards, protect or look after Example: doorkeeper门卫 goalkeeper守门员 shopkeeper店主

59 stop to think about it — take time to think about it; think about it in earnest Examples: I don’t stop to think where the money was coming from.I don’t stop to think where the money was coming from. We seldom stop to consider how poor we really are.We seldom stop to consider how poor we really are.

60 wind up dead — dead in the end Make a sentence with the phrase: ?

61 be involved in a bad pattern be involved in a bad pattern — be brought into a difficult situation Examples: a behavior pattern a behavior pattern The pattern of family life has been changing over the The pattern of family life has been changing over the recent years. pattern — n. a particular way in which something is done or organized; a particular arrangement.

62 an Eastern flanking maneuver — a planned and controlled movement of the armed forces round the sides of an enemy army as developed by the Easterners maneuver 1)n. a planned movement of troops or warships; 2)a. skilful move or clever tricks flank—n. attack the side (of); be located at the side (of) 东方侧攻策略

63 Zen — n. a Japanese form of Buddhism, emphasizing the value of meditation more than the reading of religious writings 禅,禅宗 (日本佛教宗派,注重静坐沉思而并非诵读经文) Example: Zen Buddhism 禅宗佛教Zen Buddhism 禅宗佛教

64 Sideways — adj. adv. to, towards or from the side Example: With a sideways glance, she recognized the girl next to him. adj.With a sideways glance, she recognized the girl next to him. adj. A crab moves sideways. adv.A crab moves sideways. adv. Idiom: knock sb sideways defeat sb; astonish sb 击败某人;使某人惊讶

65 I think the answer lies in that direction — I think the answer is generally like that direction — the general way in which something develops or progresses. Example: I think we’ve got to change the law in that direction at least. I think we’ve got to change the law in that direction at least. The government has to guide the general direction of the economy. The government has to guide the general direction of the economy.

66 Take the situation =Take the situation…for example Example: Everything has advantages and disadvantages. Take the situation that China enters the World Trade Organization.Everything has advantages and disadvantages. Take the situation that China enters the World Trade Organization.

67 Crisis in Western civilization has come to mean danger, period. Note: In informal American English, period is added to the end of a statement to stress its completeness, indicating that one is definite about it and is not going to discuss it further. ( 美口, 常用于叙述事实或看法后表示强调 ) 就是这话;就是这么回事 Paraphrase the sentence: ? Examples: I could have helped them, and I didn't. Period.I could have helped them, and I didn't. Period. We can't pay higher wages, period.We can't pay higher wages, period. Key: Westerners perceive crisis in a negative way: it has acquired the meaning of danger, and that's it. Westerners perceive crisis in a negative way: it has acquired the meaning of danger, and that's it.

68 Looking at a crisis from an opportunity point of view is a lateral thought Paraphrase the sentence ?Key Considering a crisis to be in part an opportunity is an example of lateral thinking. Considering a crisis to be in part an opportunity is an example of lateral thinking.

69 Guided Practice  Vocabulary Vocabulary  Cloze Cloze  Translation Translation  Structure Writing Structure Writing Structure Writing

70 Exercises Vocabulary Ex. III, p. 83 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. III, p. 83

71 1. Generally speaking, ________ covers what you need to do at the moment while strategy provides the broad guidelines that determine the overall direction. Vocabulary 2. My family ’ s health and security are of the ________ importance to me. tactics utmost III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. dead endframeworkstructuretacticsutmost verticalslacksignificantceaseimply erasehead-onflawaffirm

72 3. If one of those stays (支柱) gives way, the entire ________ may collapse. dead endframeworkstructuretacticsutmost verticalslacksignificantceaseimply erasehead-onflawaffirm Vocabulary 4. Unlike a tightrope, a ________ will sway up and down or from side to side. III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. structure slack

73 5. The president wanted to see him on a matter of great ___________. Vocabulary 6. Two foreign tourists died ad two soldiers were badly hurt yesterday when a coach and an Army truck collided almost ________ along a straight stretch of road. significance head-on III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. dead endframeworkstructuretacticsutmost verticalslacksignificantceaseimply erasehead-onflawaffirm

74 7. We tried all sorts of solutions to that problem, and they all came to a ________. Vocabulary 8. The blow on his head ________ the details of the accident from his memory. dead end erased III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. dead endframeworkstructuretacticsutmost verticalslacksignificantceaseimply erasehead-onflawaffirm

75 9. We usually judge others within the __________ of our own experience. Vocabulary 10. By the time the lifeboat arrived, the ship was almost ________ in the water. The wounded soldier is sitting in the ________ position, upright in bed. framework framework vertical vertical III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. dead endframeworkstructuretacticsutmost verticalslacksignificantceaseimply erasehead-onflawaffirm

76 11. The music ________ suddenly when she turned off the radio. Vocabulary 12. By pointing out just one ________, she destroyed his entire argument. ceased ceased flaw III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. dead endframeworkstructuretacticsutmost verticalslacksignificantceaseimply erasehead-onflawaffirm

77 13. The music ________ suddenly when she turned off the radio. Vocabulary 14. He ________ his plan to make payments on time. ceased ceased affirmed III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. dead endframeworkstructuretacticsutmost verticalslacksignificantceaseimply erasehead-onflawaffirm

78 Cloze Ex. IX, p. 86 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. IX, p. 86

79 Cloze Fill in each blank with the most appropriate word from the four choices given. IX.Fill in each blank with the most appropriate word from the four choices given. Traditional western ways of thinking can often lead to an 1)____ when we are confronting a truly difficult problem. This happened to Dr. Edward Jenner when he was trying to 2)____ up with a vaccine for the deadly disease known as smallpox. Jenner was 3)____ to solve the problem he faced by changing the 4)____ within which he looked at it. 3.A) capableB)able C) incapable D)unable 1.A) impress B) impression C) impasse D) impassion 2.A) findB) solve C) endD) come 4.A) impress B) impression C) impasse D) impassion C D B D 1.A) impress B) impression C) impasse D) impassion 2.A) findB) solve C) endD) come 3.A) capableB)able C) incapable D)unable 4.A) impress B) impression C) impasse D) impassion

80 Cloze Rather than focusing on people who had smallpox, he 5)____ carefully at those who seemed never to get the disease. This change in 6)____ is an example of what is known as “lateral thinking.” The term means choosing not to approach a problem head-on, but instead looking at it 7)____. In lateral thinking, being able to take in and 8)____ all kinds of ideas, no matter how unlikely they might seem, is of the 9)____ significance. 7.A) alongside B) sideways C) from the side D) to the side 5.A) looked B) examined C) treatedD)considered 6.A) smallpox B) tactics C) vaccination D) sidestep 8. A) take out B) take up C) condenseD) consider 9. A) most B) utmost C) great D) practical A B B D B 6.A) smallpox B) tactics C) vaccination D) sidestep 7.A) alongside B) sideways C) from the side D) to the side 8. A) take out B) take up C) condenseD) consider 9. A) most B) utmost C) great D) practical 5.A) looked B)examined C) treatedD)considered

81 Cloze Lateral thinking can help all kinds of people, from smokers who want to give 10)____ their habit, to archers who need to relax in order to perform 11)____ their best. This idea does not 12)____ that solutions which come from vertical thinking are always deeply 13) ____. 12.A) imply B) infer C) refer D) occur 10.A) awayB)up C) offD) in 11. A) for B) on C) at D) with 13.A) flayed B) flawed C) meant D) felt B C A B 10.A) awayB)up C) offD) in 11. A) for B) on C) at D) with 12.A) imply B) infer C) refer D) occur 13.A) flayed B) flawed C) meant D) felt

82 Cloze The truth is that different ways of thinking have different 14)____ when you get stuck struggling with a problem head-on, thinking laterally can help you to shift your point of view and perhaps see a 15)____ you wouldn’t other wise notice. 15.A) solving B) dissolving C) solution D) parable 14.A) aids B) assistants C) merits D) advantages C D 15.A) solving B) dissolving C) solution D) parable

83  Translation  Ex. X Ex. X Ex. X  Ex. XI Ex. XI Ex. XITranslation

84 Ex. X, p. 87 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. X, p. 87 Translation — Chinese to English

85 XI. XI.Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese. Translation — Chinese to English The normal Western approach to a problem is to fight it. The saying, “When the going gets tough, the tough get going,” is typical of this aggressive attitude toward problem-solving. No matter what the problem is, or the techniques available for solving it, the framework produced by our Western way of thinking is fight. “ 进展越困难, 硬汉子越向前 ” 这句话便代表了这种解决问题 的积极进取的态度。 “ 进展越困难, 硬汉子越向前 ” 这句话便代表了这种解决问题 的积极进取的态度。 不管是什么问题,或者可以用来解决问题的方法是什么,我 们西方人的思维方式产生的框架总是搏斗。 不管是什么问题,或者可以用来解决问题的方法是什么,我 们西方人的思维方式产生的框架总是搏斗。 一般西方人解决问题的方法是与之搏斗。

86 Translation — Chinese to English Dr. de Bono calls this vertical thinking; the traditional, sequential, Aristotelian thinking of logic, moving firmly from one step to the next, like toy blocks being built one on top of the other. The flaw is, of course, that if at any point one of the step is not reached, or one of the toy blocks is incorrectly placed, then the whole structure collapse. Impasse is reached, and frustration, tension, feelings of fight take over. 德 博诺医生称之为纵向思维;即那种传统的、按顺序的、 亚里士多德式的逻辑思维,坚定地从一步移到下一步,就像玩具 积木一块搭在另一块上。 Dr. de Bono calls this vertical thinking; the traditional, sequential, Aristotelian thinking of logic, moving firmly from one step to the next, like toy blocks being built one on top of the other. The flaw is, of course, that if at any point one of the step is not reached, or one of the toy blocks is incorrectly placed, then the whole structure collapse. Impasse is reached, and frustration, tension, feelings of fight take over. 当然,它的缺点是,如果在任何时刻其中一步没有达到,或 者一块积木没有放对,那么整个结构就会坍塌。 事情就会陷入僵局,沮丧、紧张和搏斗的情绪就会笼罩心头。

87 Translation — Chinese to English Ex. XI, p. 88 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. XI, p. 88

88 Tom was hung up on the problem but could do nothing about it until he learnt to solve it with different tactics. Translation — Chinese to English 1. 汤姆因一问题而心神不宁但又一筹莫展,直到他学会以 不同的策略把它解决才不心烦。 be hung up on can do nothing about it with different tactics

89 Lateral thinking has helped him to advance his new theory which seemed to have reached a dead end. Translation — Chinese to English 2. 横向思维帮助他提出了原来似乎走进死胡同的新理论。 advance lateral thinking dead end

90 The framework of our latest construction plan has been affirmed by the local government. Whether it will be carried out on time is of the utmost significance to the development of the coastal city. Translation — Chinese to English 3. 我们最新的建设计划的框架已获得地方政府的批准。它是 否会按时实施对这座沿海城市的发展具有极为重大的意义。 framework affirm be of the utmost importance

91 While trying to find a solution to the problem, Edward reached an impasse in his thinking, but later he changed his point of view and solved the problem in an entirely unexpected fashion. Translation — Chinese to English 4. 在设法寻找一个解决问题的办法的过程中, 爱德华在 思想上陷入了僵局,但后来他改变了观察角度,以一种 完全意想不到的方式解决了问题。 reach an impasse an entirely unexpected fashion change one’s point of view

92 Many people believe that computer labs will eventually take over from the libraries and students who want to take in new knowledge will end up learning everything in the computer lab. Translation — Chinese to English 5. 许多人认为计算机机房将最终取代图书馆,想吸收新知识 的学生最终将在计算机机房里学习一切。 end up doing take in take over

93 His car crashed into a truck almost head-on yesterday. If he does not stop driving so carelessly, I am sure he will wind up in the emergency room of a hospital. Translation — Chinese to English 6. 昨天他的汽车几乎是迎头撞上了一辆卡车。如果他继续这 样随便开车,我确信他最后一定会被送进医院的急诊室。 crash into… head-on emergency room wind up in

94 There is a flaw in the design of the structure of the painting. Why don ’ t you erase the vertical lines and simplify it a little bit? Translation — Chinese to English 7. 这幅画的结构设计有一个缺点。你为什么不擦掉那几条 垂线,把它简化一点呢? flaw vertical lines design of the structure erase

95 John should have given up smoking a long time ago. After all, health is of the utmost importance to everybody. Translation — Chinese to English 8. 约翰本该在很久以前就把烟戒掉了。毕竟健康对每个人来 说都是最重要的。 of the utmost importance give up smoking

96 Structured Writing Ex. XIII, p. 89 《读写教程 III 》 : Ex. XIII, p. 89

97 Structured Writing Generalization and specific example — Generalization and specific example — Choose one of the following topics and write two paragraphs which fit together well, one a generalization and one a specific example. Decide which you would rather put first, the generalization or the specific example. Be careful to use the appropriate verb forms. Example in Text A in Text A Example in Text A in Text A Sample Writing

98 Structured Writing  The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of view to solve the problem. The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of view to solve the problem. The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of view to solve the problem.  The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of view to solve the problem. The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of view to solve the problem. The author starts with a specific example of changing one’s point of view to solve the problem.  He moves on to present the problem with our thinking. He moves on to present the problem with our thinking. He moves on to present the problem with our thinking.  He moves on to present the problem with our thinking. He moves on to present the problem with our thinking. He moves on to present the problem with our thinking.  Then he gives a generalization of the example. Then he gives a generalization of the example. Then he gives a generalization of the example.  Then he gives a generalization of the example. Then he gives a generalization of the example. Then he gives a generalization of the example.

99  The author starts with a specific example : Dr. Edward Jenner was busy trying to solve the problem of smallpox. After studying case after case, he still found no possible cure. He had reached an impasse in his thinking. At this point, he changed his tactics. Instead of focusing on people who had smallpox, he switched his attention to people who did not have smallpox. It turned out that dairymaids apparently never got the disease. From the discovery that harmless cowpox gave protection against deadly smallpox came vaccination and the end of smallpox as a scourge in the western world. Structured Writing

100  He moves on to present the problem with our thinking: We often reach an impasse in our thinking. We are looking at a problem and trying to solve it and it seems there is a dead end. It is on these occasions that we become tense, we feel pressured, overwhelmed, in a state of stress. We struggle vainly, fighting to solve the problem. Structured Writing

101  Then he gives a generalization of the example: Dr. Jenner, however, did something about this situation. He stopped fighting the problem and simply changed his point of view— from his patients to dairy maids. Picture the process going something like this: Suppose the brain is a computer. This computer has absorbed into its memory bank all your history, your experiences, your training, your information received through life; and it is programmed according to all this data. To change your point of view, you must reprogram your computer, thus freeing yourself to take in new ideas and develop new ways of looking at things. Dr. Jenner, in effect, by reprogramming his computer, erased the old way of looking at his smallpox problem and was free to receive new alternatives. Structured Writing

102 Sample: A farmer’s donkey fell in an abandoned well. The farmer decided not to save the donkey since it was old. Then he began to shovel dirt into the well. The donkey began to cry. A few minutes later, he quieted down. The farmer peered into the well, and was astonished by what he saw. With every shovelful of dirt that hit its back, the donkey would shake it off and take a step on the new layer of dirt. As the farmer continued to shovel dirt on top of the animal, it would shake it off and take another step up. Soon, the donkey stepped over the edge of the well and trotted off. The lesson we get from this story is that if life shovels some dirt on us, we must get out of the well and not let it bury us. We must learn to shake it off and take a step up. Each of our troubles is a stepping stone. We can get out of the deepest wells by never giving up! Structured Writing

103 Here are some ideas you can choose from: 1.Love is more important than money. 2.Money is more important than love. 3.There are more interesting sights to see inside of China than outside. 4.There are more interesting sights to see outside of China than inside.

104 1.Review Text A 2.Do exercises: Structure (Ex. VIII, p. 86) Structure (Ex. VIII, p. 86) Cloze(Ex., IX, p. 86) Cloze(Ex., IX, p. 86) Translation (Ex. X, XI, p. 87,88) Translation (Ex. X, XI, p. 87,88) 3.Structured Writing(p. 89) AssignmentAssignment


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