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Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon1 Atypical Sexual Variations Chapter 17 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 2 Atypical Sexual Variations Normal Versus Deviant Sexual Behavior The Paraphilias Theoretical Perspectives Treatment of the Paraphilias
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 3 Normal Versus Deviant Sexual Behavior Defining Normal Sexual Behavior Frequency of the behavior Cultural considerations Persistent preference for nongenital sexual outlets Atypical variations Unusual patterns of arousal or behavior
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 4 The Paraphilias Paraphilia A diagnostic category used by the American Psychiatric Association Used to describe atypical patterns of sexual arousal or behavior that become problematic to the individual or society Urges are recurrent and are either acted on or are distressing to the individual. Milder forms of these behaviors may be practiced by many people, however. Mostly occur among men Some are harmless and victimless, while others can have serious effects on others
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 5 The Paraphilias Fetishism Inanimate object elicits sexual arousal Common objects are articles of clothing and materials made of rubber, leather, silk, or fur. Partialism Related to fetishism in which sexual arousal is exaggeratedly associated with a particular body part Such as feet, breasts, or buttocks Most fetishes and partialisms are harmless.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 6 The Paraphilias Transvestism Person repeatedly cross-dresses to achieve sexual arousal or gratification or is troubled by persistent, recurring urges to cross-dress Almost all transvestites are men. Both gay and heterosexual males report transvestism. It is not the same as transsexualism. Transsexuals cross-dress because of discomfort with their anatomic sex and desire to be the other sex However, some transvestites and some transsexuals may be motivated by autogynephilia A fetish in which men are sexually stimulated by fantasies that their own bodies are female
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 7 The Paraphilias Exhibitionism Urges and fantasies involving exposing one’s genitals to unsuspecting strangers Provides sexual arousal or gratification Urges are either acted upon or are disturbing Exposure to exhibitionism is common. A sample of college women found that one-third had been approached by a “flasher.” Exhibitionists usually are not physically threatening. Victims may experience negative psychological consequences. Often lonely and sexually repressed Some progress to more serious crimes of sexual aggression
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 8 The Paraphilias Obscene Telephone Calling Sexual arousal results from shocking victims Telephone scatologia A DSM label for a paraphilia characterized by the making of obscene telephone calls Usually socially inadequate heterosexual men Voyeurism Characterized by observing unsuspecting strangers who are naked, disrobing, or engaged in sexual relations Most, but not all, voyeurs are nonviolent. Often feel inadequate and lack social & sexual skills
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 9 The Paraphilias Sexual Masochism Characterized by the desire or need for pain or humiliation to enhance sexual arousal Bondage Ritual restraint, as by shackles Although some masochists are women, it is much more common among men. Masochists may form relationships with sexual sadists, people who become sexually aroused by inflicting pain or humiliation.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 10 The Paraphilias Hypoxyphilia Person seeks to enhance sexual arousal, usually during masturbation, by becoming deprived of oxygen Sexual Sadism Characterized by the desire or need to inflict pain or humiliation on others to enhance sexual arousal
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 11 The Paraphilias Sadomasochism (S&M) A mutually gratifying sexual interaction between consenting sex partners Sexual arousal is associated with the infliction and receipt of pain or humiliation. Occasional, mild S&M is common among the general population. S&M subculture exists in the U.S. S&M fantasies likely begin in childhood.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 12 The Paraphilias Frotteurism Characterized by rubbing against or touching a nonconsenting person Often takes place in crowded places such as buses, subways, or elevators Also known as “mashing” Reported exclusively among males Toucherism Related to frotteurism and characterized by the persistent urge to fondle nonconsenting strangers
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 13 The Paraphilias Other Paraphilias Zoophilia Characterized by urges and fantasies involving sexual contact with animals Bestiality Involves actual sexual contact with an animal Necrophilia Characterized by desire for sexual activity with corpses 3 types Regular: has sex with a dead person Necrophilic homicide: person commits murder to obtain corpse for sexual purposes Necrophilic fantasy: person only fantasizes about sex with corpse Rare paraphilia & necrophiles are seriously disturbed
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 14 The Paraphilias Less common paraphilias Klismaphilia Sexual arousal is derived from the use of enemas Coprophilia Sexual arousal is attained in connection with feces Urophilia Sexual arousal is associated with urine These paraphilias may have childhood origins.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 15 Theoretical Perspectives Biological Perspectives Examines factors such as the endocrine system and the nervous system Electroencephalograph (EEG) data show that paraphilic men’s brains respond differently to sexual stimuli and paraphilic stimuli compared to control subjects.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 16 Theoretical Perspectives Psychoanalytic Perspectives Paraphilias are psychological defenses. Usually against unresolved castration anxiety due to the Oedipus complex Suppressed or repressed feelings of sexual guilt and shame Learning-Theory Perspectives Paraphilias are learned behaviors acquired through experience. An object or situation may be associated with sexual arousal, fantasies, or orgasm Modeling or observational learning also may play a role.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 17 Theoretical Perspectives Sociological Perspectives Focus on the social context, the effects of the group, and society in general An Integrated Perspective: The “Lovemap” Acknowledges the multiple origins of paraphilias Money (2000) proposes that childhood experiences create a lovemap A mental representation of the idealized lover and the idealized erotic activity with the lover Lovemaps can become distorted by early traumas.
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 18 Treatment of Paraphilias Issues in treatment Many people with paraphilias don’t want treatment & don’t seek it voluntarily Ethical issues arise when providers are asked to contribute to judicial processes Providers realize they are likely to not be successful with resistant clients Perceived responsibility
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 19 Treatment of Paraphilias Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Focuses on resolving unconscious conflicts, typically Oedipal, believed to lead to pathologies such as paraphilias Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Focuses directly on changing behavior Systematic desensitization A method for terminating the connection between a stimulus and an inappropriate response Relaxation replaces sexual arousal
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 20 Treatment of Paraphilias Aversion therapy A method for terminating undesirable sexual behavior in which the behavior is paired repeatedly with an aversive stimulus such as electric shock so that a conditioned aversion develops Covert sensitization A form of aversion therapy in which thoughts of engaging in undesirable behavior are paired repeatedly with imagined aversive stimuli Used with pedophiles, a paraphilia involving sexual interest in children
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 21 Treatment of Paraphilias Social skills training Behavior therapy methods for building social skills that rely on a therapist’s coaching and practice Used to help individuals relate to the other gender Orgasmic reconditioning A method for strengthening the connection between sexual arousal and appropriate sexual stimuli by repeatedly pairing the desired stimuli with orgasm
Copyright 2008 Allyn & Bacon 22 Treatment of Paraphilias Medical Approaches Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Used to treat exhibitionism, voyeurism, and fetishism May treat the obsessive-compulsive quality of paraphilias Anti-androgen drug A chemical substance that reduces the sex drive by lowering the level of testosterone in the bloodstream Depo-Provera is used in the treatment of sex offenders Suppresses, but does not eliminate, sexual desire in men Unlike surgical castration (removal of the testes), the effects of this treatment can be reversed.