What is Normal? F Statistical norm (mean,var) –Many behs rare but not deviant F Social/cultural norm –Varies lots F Inappropriate people, objects, or activities –Non genital sex
Paraphilias F Atypical sexual patterns (APA) –Arousal to unusual S (kids, shoes, rubber) –Uncontrollable, recurrent urges (acted on) –Distressing –Problematic –Mostly men F Harmless v. victim-producing
Fetishism F Arousal to inanimate objects (high-heeled shoes, stockings, rubber) –Masturbation device (almost all men) –Varies in intensity Pleasurable addition No arousal w/o object F Is this normal?
Class Data 03 (N = 71, Female = 41) Yes Masturbate - NonSex20% MaleFemaleYes Masturbate - NonSex25%18%
What is Normal? F Matter of degree –Being aroused by high-heeled shoes is not necessarily a problem Uncontrollable urges Distressed & no satisfaction w/o object Harmful to self, others (burglary of women’s shoes)
Reaction Paper I: Fetishism F How would you react if your lover revealed that s/he had a fetish? Do you think fetishes are ‘sick’ or ‘harmless fun’? Why do you think you feel this way? F PLEASE TURN IN AFTER CLASS!
Transvestism F Aroused by dressing like women –Married heterosexuals –No gender confusion –Likely to be oldest/only children close w/ Mom –Petticoat punishment
Exhibitionism F Arousal exposing genitals to unwilling women (risk of being caught) –Young, single, sexually repressed men –Problems w/ women Hostility, power themes Victims feel violated –Rarely initiates sexual contact 10% rapists start off as flashers
Pedophilia F Sexual arousal by children –Most common victimizing paraphilia –Wide cultural & historical variation in acceptability Illegal in every country in the world –Begins in adolescence & is obsessive, predatory –Girls more likely to be victims than boys
Pedophilia F Most pedophiles are males –Some females but they usually play helping role to male –Female pedophiles more disturbed Abuse younger children for a longer time F Abuse can produce long lasting psychological trauma
Pedophilia F Pedophiles –Arrested psychological development –Poor self-esteem –Poor social skills w/ adults –History of being abused (~35%) –Difficult/impossible to treat 100s of victims & very high recidivism rate
Causes F Biology –No brain abnormalities –Hormone imbalances (exhibitionists high T) F Psychoanalytical –Defend against uncon fears (castration anxiety) –Symbolically assert penis F Behavioral/Learning –Associate object/act w/ arousal or reward during childhood
Masochism F Aroused by pain and/or humiliation –Spanked, bound, domination, lick boots, urinated on, by sexual sadist (S&M) Elaborate rituals Avoid injury (pain, not damage) –Mostly men but women also –Most married, successful & prosperous –No relation w/ sexual orientation –Pain arousing only in sexual context
Class Data 03 (N = 71, Female = 41) Yes Kinsey (1953)~25% Engaged in Masochistic 31% MaleFemale Engaged in Masochistic 29%32% Maybe or definitely Try Masochistic 46%23%
Masochism: Causes F Psychoanalytical –Guilt over unconscious desire for power –Punish ourselves –Guilt over normal sex - domination freeing F Not supported –Masochistic desires far more common (4:1) –Start masochistic role -> sadistic –Guilt about S&M, not normal sexual desires
Masochism: Causes F Biological Opponent Processes –Physiological reactions causes equal and opposite reaction –Pain -> pleasure F Not supported –Masochism too rare in general population –Cultural variation large
Masochism: Causes F Escape From Self –Modern Western culture stressful –Reduce self-awareness releases stress –Pain, humiliation focuses attention on immediate experience Forget self & worries of normal life Break from stress of daily life (reprieve) –Mistress take me away
Paraphilias F Many others - please see text F Therapy - please be sure to also read about how paraphilias are treated
Group Activity II: Paraphilias F Groups of 4-5 (mixed-gender) discuss the following questions –Summarize As –Present to class F PLEASE TURN IN AFTER CLASS!
Group Activity II: Paraphilias F 1. Why do paraphilias occur primarily among men? Is there gender bias regarding behaviors labeled “deviant”? (e.g., are women who dress like men deviant?) F 2. Why do you think women have more masochistic fantasies than men & men engage in more masochistic behavior?
Conclusions F What is (ab)normal is hard to define –Rooted in current culture –Harmful to self or others key F Sexual interest, behaviors vary widely F Many theoretical approaches attempt to explain this variability