Presentation on theme: "ENDHOME Grace O’Malley, Granuaile Chieftain, trader, pirate adapted from ‘Grace O’Malley’, Time Traveller 2 by Day, R. at al., CJ Fallon, 0-71441-129-9,"— Presentation transcript:
ENDHOME Grace O’Malley, Granuaile Chieftain, trader, pirate adapted from ‘Grace O’Malley’, Time Traveller 2 by Day, R. at al., CJ Fallon, 0-71441-129-9, 00 83-7
ENDHOME If you had been alive four hundred years ago and living near Clew Bay in Co. Mayo, you might have seen galleys (ships) like the one in the picture sailing the seas around Clare Island. Many of the galleys would probably have belonged to Grace O’Malley, chieftain, trader and pirate. Grace – a timeline Planning: NLS Year 3NLS Year 3
ENDHOME Grace was born in 1530. She was a member of the O’Malley family. The family crest is also on the right. The family motto, in Latin, was Terra Marique Potens. This means Powerful on land and sea.
ENDHOME We do not know what Grace O’Malley looked like, but we are told that she had dark hair and dark skin. She might have looked like this as a young woman. Her clothes are similar to those worn by Irishwomen at that time. An modern artist’s impression of how Grace might have looked. This is a seventeenth-century portrait of Grace’s granddaughter. Could Grace have looked like her?
ENDHOME Grace O’Malley was one of the most successful pirates ever to sail the seas off the west coast of Ireland. With a fleet of ships and over 200 men, she robbed the cargo of any ship that dared to sail through her waters and charged the owners a ransom for a safe voyage. Contemporaries feared Grace Top: An artist’s impression of an O’Malley galley Bottom: Replica of 30-oared galley used by Grace
ENDHOME Grace was also a trader and she frequently sailed her galleys as far as Spain where she traded fish and cattle hides for wine, salt and iron. Her ships were often hired by the leaders in Ulster at that time, the O’Neills and O’Donnells, to bring fighting men, called gallowglasses, over from Scotland. Song: Free & Easy Song: Free & Easy Grace had a very exciting life. Many stories are told about the adventures she had. Here are four of them.
ENDHOME Grace O’Malley was also called Grainne Mhaol. We do not know why buy maybe it is because maol means bald. It is said that when Grace was a young girl, she asked her father could she sail with him. He refused to take her, because she was a girl. However, Grace was determined to go with him, so she cut off all her hair and dressed in boys’ clothes. She went back to her father and said, ‘Now will you take me?’ We don’t know what her father answered. What do you think?
ENDHOME Howth Castle Once, when returning from a voyage, Grace’s fleet landed at Howth near Dublin. At that time, it was the custom for Irish chieftains to offer food and shelter to other chieftains who were travelling through their lands. Grace went to Howth Castle, fully expecting to be welcomed as a guest. Imagine her surprise and anger when she found the gates of the castle locked against her. To make matters worse, she was told that the lord of the castle was dining and did not wish to be Disturbed. Furious at this insult, she returned to her ship.
ENDHOME On her way back, Grace came upon the son of the Lord playing with his friends. She quickly seized the boy and carried him aboard her ship. With her hostage safely aboard Grace’s fleet set sail for home. Frightened for his son’s safety, the Lord of Howth went to Mayo to plead for his release. He offered to pay Grace any ransom she demanded in return for his son. Grace did not ask for money, however. She wanted a promise that the gates of Howth Castle would never again be closed to anyone looking for food and shelter. She also demanded that an extra place would always be laid at the dinner table in Howth.
ENDHOME When Grace was sixteen years old, she was married to a chieftain called Donal O’Flaherty. His nickname was Donal an Chogaidh (Donal of the Battles), because he was always fighting. Donal attacked and captured a small castle on an island in Lough Corrib from his neighbours, the Joyces. Donal fought so fiercely that he was given a new nickname, Donal an Choiligh (Donal the Cock), and the castle was renamed Cock’s Castle in his honour.
ENDHOME Shortly afterwards, Donal was attacked and killed by the Joyces while hunting in the mountains. Luckily, some of his men survived the ambush and returned to the castle to warn Grace. The Joyces thought that, with Donal dead, it would be easy to recover their castle. They were wrong. Grace rallied her followers around her and fiercely defended the castle. The Joyces were forced to retreat. Grace defended the castle so well that its name was changed to Caisleán na Circe (Hen’s Castle) in her honour. Song: The Defence of Hen’s Castle
ENDHOME Grace had a deadly enemy called Sir Richard Bingham. He had been appointed Governor of Connacht by Queen Elizabeth I of England. He was determined to bring Grace under his control. Bingham made life very difficult for Grace, taking her lands and cattle, and even putting her in jail on one occasion. Finally, in 1593, Grace wrote to Queen Elizabeth I to complain about his behaviour. Grace’s tactics in dealing with the English
ENDHOME Elizabeth agreed to see Grace. She was probably curious to meet this famous pirate who had caused the English in Ireland so much trouble. Queen Elizabeth must have been impressed by Grace because she ordered Bingham to return the lands and cattle which he had taken from her. Grace returned to Connacht where she died about the year 1603. Extract from Grace’s petition to Elizabeth I
ENDHOME Timeline c.1530 Granuaile is born. Granuaile cuts off her hair and goes to sea with her father. 1546 marries Donal O’Flaherty. Donal captures small castle in Lough Corrib from the Joyces. Donal is killed by the Joyces. The Joyces attack Hen’s castle but Grace maintains control. 1566 marries Richard (‘Iron Dick’) Bourke. 1577-1579 imprisoned in Rockfleet. 1588 granted a pardon by Queen Elizabeth I. 1593 audience with Elizabeth I in London. 1603 dies in poverty. BACK TO TEXT
ENDHOME Contemporary fears of Grace and her clan ‘Grany O’Mayle [is] a woman that hath impudently passed the part of womanhood and been a great spoiler and chief commander and director of thieves and murders at sea to spoil this province.’ Lord Justice Drury, 1578 ‘The continuing roads used by the O’Malleys and O’Flaherties with their galleys along our coasts, where there have been taken sundry ships and barks bound for this poor town, which they have not only rifled to the utter overthrow of the owners and merchants, but also have most wickedly murdered divers of young men to the great terror of such as would willingly traffic.’ Corporation of Galway City, no date BACK TO TEXT
ENDHOME What can you see from the masthead? Spanish ships a-fishing What can you see from the masthead? A Portugee from Newfoundland Rising up on the breaking wave Let it carry you over all the sea in the morning Weigh, hey, and up she rises Sun is up, the bird’s a-wing And we’re sailing free and easy What can you see from the masthead? A trading ship for Galway What does he pay for the passage? A just reward for the pilot Rising up on the breaking wave etc. We’ll stay at sea when the wind is keen And waves begin to billow We’ll keep to the sea when the wind it fails And homeward bound we’ll row Where shall we go for a cargo? We’ll run right down to Vigo And if the Bay shall make a storm We’ll take a look in at Bordeaux What spy you now from the masthead? An Algerine on the quarter What shall we do to greet him? Acquaint him with our ordnance Rising up on the breaking wave etc. BACK TO TEXT ‘Free & Easy’ Composed by Shaun Davey Granuaile, Tara Music Company Ltd, 1985, Tara CD 3071; sung by Rita Connolly
ENDHOME I had word of your coming This is no surprise To find oneself thus surrounded Nor to feel such tears of anger Now the cock crows no more The hen shall slam the door No raider, housebreaker No bandit sheriff’s men No Galway blow-in Shall here lay a claim This poor widow-woman Long before now Has stood her ground Amidst the white winter fury of the ocean She has outfoxed The running surge of the breaking wave And thus humbled She will bow before no man Go kindle torches High on the hill of Doon The night’s ablaze with flames on the hillside In the morning ye shall find comfort BACK TO TEXT ‘The Defence of Hen’s Castle’ Composed by Shaun Davey Granuaile, Tara Music Company Ltd, 1985, Tara CD 3071; sung by Rita Connolly
ENDHOME Grace’s tactics against the English an imaginary letter June, the Year of Our Lord 1575, Clare Island My dear Toby, At this season I am usually at sea. A slight injury - nothing your need worry about - is keeping me on the island a little longer. My shoulder is giving me some trouble but my right hand is undamaged, thank God. So I can write to you. Are you well, my son? Are the priests teaching you as I have instructed them? Learn your letters, study Latin, and memorise the names of the major seaports. Your older brothers by Donal O’Flaherty are merely simply warriors, all strength and shouting. I want more than that for you. Against an enemy as powerful as the English it is necessary to fight with one’s brains. Fortunately you and I both inherited good brains. It saddens me to tell you that my beloved Dubhdara is dying. Your grandfather is like an ancient oak tree that has fallen in the forest and is slowly crumbling away. I continue to captain the fleet and support his people. I cannot say what the future holds, but be assured I shall do my best. Always, Granuaile From the historical novel, Granuaile. The Pirate Queen, by Morgan Llywelyn, O’Brien Press, 0-86278-578-2, pp 58-9 BACK TO TEXT
ENDHOME Grace’s petition to Elizabeth I In the opening lines of her petition Grace established her version of events, telling Elizabeth: ‘of the continual discords stirrs and dissention that hertofore long lyme remained among the Irishrey especially in west Conaght by the sea side everie cheeftaine for his safeguard and maintenance and for the defence of his people followers and countrye took armed by strong hand to make head against his neybours which in like manner contrayned your highness fond subject to take armes and by force to maintaine her selfe and her people by sea and land the space of fortye years past.’ Then she asked the queen for money and a free hand to do as she wished: ‘in tender considercion whereof and in regard of her great age... to grant her some reasonable maintenance for the little tyme she hath to lyve.’ and ‘grant unto your said subject under your most gracious hand of signet free libertye during her lyve to envade with sword and fire all your highness enemies wheresoever they are or shall be... without interruption of any person or persons whatsoever.’ BACK TO TEXT