Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Plantae Notes Mancheski 2013. Seed Germination Seed Germination: Resumption of growth of the plant embryo following dormancy. Dormancy: period."— Presentation transcript:
Kingdom Plantae Notes Mancheski 2013
Seed Germination Seed Germination: Resumption of growth of the plant embryo following dormancy. Dormancy: period in which the embryo is alive but not growing. Steps to seed germination: – 1. seeds absorb water – 2. absorbed water causes food-storing tissues to swell and crack seed coat – 3. the young root emerges and begins to grow – 4. the shoot emerges and begins to grow
What factors might influence seed germination?
Roots Function: – 1. Anchor plant in the ground and hold them upright – 2. Hold soil in place (preventing erosion) – 3. Mutualistic relationship with soil bacterial and fungi – 4. Absorb and transport water and dissolved nutrients to the rest of the plant – 5. Store food
Stems Function: – 1. support system for the plant body – 2. transport system that carries nutrients – 3. defense system that protects the plant against predators and disease. – 4. produce leaves and flowers
Primary growth: growth from the tip of the plant (Apical meristem) Secondary growth: growth in the thickness of stems and roots.
Stem Vocabulary Nodes: where leaves are attached. Buds: where leaves attach to nodes.
Xylem (heartwood) – old xylem that no longer conducts fluid but helps with support. Xylem (sapwood) – contains active xylem that transports water and dissolved nutrients. Vascular Cambium – a meristem that produces new xylem and phloem, increasing stem width. Phloem – a vascular tissue that transports sugars made by photosynthesis. Cork Cambium (Bark) – a meristem that produces the protective layer of cork. Cork (Bark) – contains nonfunctioning phloem.
Leaves Function: – 1. plant’s main photosynthetic organs – 2. increase the amount of sunlight a plant absorbs – 3. Adjustable pores help conserve water while letting oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit
Leaf Anatomy Blade – thin, flattened part to collect sunlight Petiole – a think stalk that connects the blade to the stem Stomata – small openings in the epidermis that allow carbon dioxide, water and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf
Leaf Vocabulary Photosynthesis – process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates
Transpiration – loss of water though the leaves Wilting – the loss of water in the central vacuole of the plant cell, and therefore, loss of pressure.
Homeostasis Plants maintain homeostasis by keeping their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water.
Flowers Function: – Flowers are reproductive organs that are composed of four different kinds of specialized leaves.
Flower parts Stamen – male parts of a flower – Anther – produces pollen grains – Filament – stalk that has the anther at its tip Carpels – female parts of a flower – Ovary – produces the eggs (ovules) – Style – stalk that contains the stigma at its tip – Stigma – sticky structure used to capture pollen Petal – used to attract pollinators to the plant Sepal – enclose the bud before it opens and protects the flower
Fruits As angiosperm seeds mature, ovary walls thicken to form a fruit that encloses the developing seeds – Strawberries, peanuts, rose hips, coconut