2Seed GerminationSeed Germination: Resumption of growth of the plant embryo following dormancy.Dormancy: period in which the embryo is alive but not growing.Steps to seed germination:1. seeds absorb water2. absorbed water causesfood-storing tissues to swelland crack seed coat3. the young root emergesand begins to grow4. the shoot emerges andbegins to grow
5Roots Function: 1. Anchor plant in the ground and hold them upright 2. Hold soil in place (preventing erosion)3. Mutualistic relationship with soil bacterial and fungi4. Absorb and transport water and dissolved nutrients to the rest of the plant5. Store food
6Types:1. Tap root2. Fibrous root3. Prop root4. Aerial root
7Stems Function: 1. support system for the plant body 2. transport system that carries nutrients3. defense system that protects the plant against predators and disease.4. produce leaves and flowers
8Primary growth: growth from the tip of the plant (Apical meristem) Secondary growth: growth in the thickness of stems and roots.
9Stem Vocabulary Nodes: where leaves are attached. Buds: where leaves attach to nodes.
10Xylem (heartwood) – old xylem that no longer conducts fluid but helps with support. Xylem (sapwood) – contains active xylem that transports water and dissolved nutrients.Vascular Cambium – a meristem that produces new xylem and phloem, increasing stem width.Phloem – a vascular tissue that transports sugars made by photosynthesis.Cork Cambium (Bark) – a meristem that produces the protective layer of cork.Cork (Bark) – contains nonfunctioning phloem.
12Leaves Function: 1. plant’s main photosynthetic organs 2. increase the amount of sunlight a plant absorbs3. Adjustable pores help conserve water while letting oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit
13Leaf Anatomy Blade – thin, flattened part to collect sunlight Petiole – a think stalk that connects the blade to the stemStomata – small openings in the epidermis that allow carbon dioxide, water and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf
15Leaf VocabularyPhotosynthesis – process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates
16Transpiration – loss of water though the leaves Wilting – the loss of water in the central vacuole of the plant cell, and therefore, loss of pressure.
17HomeostasisPlants maintain homeostasis by keeping their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water.
18FlowersFunction:Flowers are reproductive organs that are composed of four different kinds of specialized leaves.
19Flower parts Stamen – male parts of a flower Anther – produces pollen grainsFilament – stalk that has the anther at its tipCarpels – female parts of a flowerOvary – produces the eggs (ovules)Style – stalk that contains the stigma at its tipStigma – sticky structure used to capture pollenPetal – used to attract pollinators to the plantSepal – enclose the bud before it opens and protects the flower
20FruitsAs angiosperm seeds mature, ovary walls thicken to form a fruit that encloses the developing seedsStrawberries, peanuts, rose hips, coconut