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Slide 1 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.

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1 Slide 1 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

2 Slide 2 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants

3 Slide 3 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Seed Plant Structure What are the three principal organs and tissues of seed plants?

4 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 4 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Seed Plant Structure The three principal organs of seed plants are roots, stems, and leaves. These organs perform functions such as the transport of nutrients, protection, and coordination of plant activities.

5 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 5 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Seed Plant Structure Roots: absorb water and dissolved nutrients. anchor plants in the ground. protect the plant from harmful soil bacteria and fungi.

6 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 6 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Seed Plant Structure Stems provide: a support system for the plant body. a transport system that carries nutrients. a defense system that protects the plant against predators and disease.

7 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 7 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Seed Plant Structure Leaves: are a plant’s main photosynthetic systems. increase the amount of sunlight plants absorb. Adjustable pores conserve water and let oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit the leaf.

8 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 8 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plant Tissue Systems What are the three main tissue systems of plants?

9 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 9 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plants consist of three main tissue systems: dermal tissue vascular tissue ground tissue Plant Tissue Systems

10 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 10 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plant Tissue Systems Leaf Stem Root

11 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 11 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Dermal Tissue The outer covering of a plant consists of epidermal cells. Epidermal cells make up dermal tissue. The outer surfaces of epidermal cells are covered with a thick waxy layer, known as the cuticle. The cuticle protects the plant against water loss and injury.

12 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 12 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Dermal Tissue Some epidermal cells have projections called trichomes, that help protect the leaf and also give it a fuzzy appearance. In roots, dermal tissue includes root hair cells that provide a large amount of surface area and aid in water absorption. On the underside of leaves, dermal tissue contains guard cells, which regulate water loss and gas exchange.

13 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 13 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vascular Tissue Vascular tissue forms a transport system that moves water and nutrients throughout the plant. Vascular tissue is made up of xylem, a water- conducting tissue, and phloem, a food-conducting tissue.

14 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 14 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall What specialized cells make up vascular tissue? Vascular Tissue

15 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 15 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vascular Tissue Vascular tissue contains several types of specialized cells. Xylem consists of tracheids and vessel elements. Phloem consists of sieve tube elements and companion cells.

16 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 16 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vascular Tissue Xylem Phloem Tracheid Vessel element Companion cell Sieve tube element Cross Section of a Stem

17 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 17 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vascular Tissue Xylem All seed plants have tracheids. Tracheids are long, narrow cells that are impermeable to water. They are pierced by openings that connect neighboring cells to one another. Tracheid Vessel element

18 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 18 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vascular Tissue Angiosperms also have vessel elements. Vessel elements form a continuous tube through which water can move. Tracheid Vessel element

19 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 19 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vascular Tissue Phloem Phloem contains sieve tube elements and companion cells. Sieve tube elements are phloem cells joined end-to-end to form sieve tubes. Sieve tube element Companion cell

20 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 20 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vascular Tissue The end walls of sieve tube elements have many small holes. Sugars and other foods can move through these holes from one adjacent cell to another. Companion cell Sieve tube element

21 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 21 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Vascular Tissue Companion cells are phloem cells that surround sieve tube elements. Companion cells support the phloem cells and aid in the movement of substances in and out of the phloem. Sieve tube element Companion cell

22 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 22 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ground Tissue Cells that lie between dermal and vascular tissues make up the ground tissues. The three kinds of ground tissue are: parenchyma collenchyma sclerenchyma

23 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 23 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ground Tissue Parenchyma cells have thin walls and large central vacuoles surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm. Collenchyma cells have strong, flexible cell walls that help support larger plants. Sclerenchyma cells have extremely thick, rigid cell walls that make ground tissue tough and strong.

24 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 24 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plant Growth and Meristematic Tissue In most plants, new cells are produced at the tips of the roots and stems. These cells are produced in meristems. A meristem is a cluster of tissue that is responsible for continuing growth throughout a plant's lifetime.

25 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 25 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plant Growth and Meristematic Tissue The new cells produced in meristematic tissue are undifferentiated. As the cells develop into mature cells, they differentiate. Differentiation is the process in which cells become specialized in structure. As the cells differentiate, they produce dermal, ground, and vascular tissue.

26 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 26 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plant Growth and Meristematic Tissue Near the tip of each growing stem and root is an apical meristem. An apical meristem is a group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems and roots.

27 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 27 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plant Growth and Meristematic Tissue How does meristematic tissue differ from other plant tissue?

28 23–1 Specialized Tissues in Plants Slide 28 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plant Growth and Meristematic Tissue Meristematic tissue is the only plant tissue that produces new cells by mitosis.

29 - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 29 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 23–1

30 Slide 30 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 23–1 The principle organs of seed plants are a.reproductive organs and photosynthetic organs. b.stems, leaves, and flowers. c.roots, vessels, and cones. d.leaves, stems, and roots.

31 Slide 31 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 23–1 Phloem cells that surround sieve tube elements are called a.epidermal cells. b.cuticle cells. c.companion cells. d.vessel elements.

32 Slide 32 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 23–1 Which type of ground tissue has thin cell walls and large central vacuoles? a.parenchyma b.collenchyma c.sclerenchyma d.tracheids

33 Slide 33 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 23–1 Cells that can differentiate into many plant tissues are found in a.the vascular cylinder. b.dermal tissue. c.meristematic tissue. d.ground tissue.

34 Slide 34 of 34 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 23–1 When cells in the apical meristem first develop, they are a.highly specialized and divide often. b.unspecialized and divide rarely. c.highly specialized and divide rarely. d.unspecialized and divide often.

35 END OF SECTION


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