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Flowering Plants Chapter 25 Notes. Angiosperms Phylum Anthophyta Anthus “flower” phyt “plant” 300,000+ species Earth’s Dominant Plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Flowering Plants Chapter 25 Notes. Angiosperms Phylum Anthophyta Anthus “flower” phyt “plant” 300,000+ species Earth’s Dominant Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flowering Plants Chapter 25 Notes

2 Angiosperms Phylum Anthophyta Anthus “flower” phyt “plant” 300,000+ species Earth’s Dominant Plants

3 Flowering Plants Like gymnosperms: –Flowering plants have vascular tissues and produce seeds –Heterosporous – megaspores and microspores Unlike gymnosperms: –Ovules of flowering plants are enclosed within an ovary

4 KEY TERMS OVULE –Structure in the ovary that contains a female gametophyte and develops into a seed after fertilization OVARY –Base of a carpel or fused carpels that contains ovules and develops into a fruit after fertilization

5 Orange Fruit Development

6 The Function of Fruits Protects seeds as they grow and mature Seed Dispersal

7 Flower Parts Female Parts The Pistil – 1+ Carpels Stigma - sticky Style – the neck connecting stigma to ovary Ovary – houses ovules (each contains 1 egg) Male Parts The Stamen Anther – produces pollen grains Filament - stalk

8 Ecology and Economy Our survival as a species depends on flowering plants –Major food crops Products –Cork, rubber, tobacco, coffee, chocolate, aromatic oils for perfumes –Valuable lumber –Fibers and medicines –Clothing

9 Economic Botany Subdiscipline of botany that deals with plants of economic importance –Most of these are flowering plants

10 KEY TERMS COTYLEDON –The seed leaf of a plant embryo, which may contain food stored for germination

11 KEY TERMS MONOCOT –Seeds contain a single cotyledon –Monocots have floral parts in threes –Monocots include grasses, orchids, irises, onions, lilies, palms Mostly Herbaceous

12 KEY TERMS EUDICOT –Seeds contain two cotyledons –Eudicots have floral parts in fours or fives –Eudicots include oaks, roses, mustards, cacti, blueberries, sunflowers

13 Life Cycle Flowering plants undergo an alternation of generations: –Sporophyte generation is larger and nutritionally independent –Gametophyte generation is reduced to only a few microscopic cells

14 KEY TERMS DOUBLE FERTILIZATION –A process in the flowering plant life cycle in which there are two fertilizations –One results in formation of a zygote –Second results in formation of endosperm

15 KEY TERMS ENDOSPERM –The 3n nutritive tissue formed at some point in the development of all angiosperm seeds –Formed by double fertilization The two polar nuclei fuse with the second sperm cell

16 Life Cycle: Flowering Plants

17 Pollen Grains

18 Adaptations of Flowering Plants Reproduce sexually by forming flowers Form seeds within fruits after double fertilization Efficient water-conducting vessel elements in xylem Efficient carbohydrate-conducting sieve- tube elements in phloem Have pollen grains transported by wind, water, insects, other animals

19 KEY TERMS APOMIXIS –A type of reproduction –Fruits and seeds are formed asexually –No fusion of gametes –Embryo is genetically similar to parent –Plants that reproduce by apomixis: dandelions, citrus trees, blackberries, garlic, certain grasses.

20 Adaptability of Flowering Plants

21 KEY TERMS BASAL ANGIOSPERM –Group of angiosperms thought to be ancestral to all other flowering plants CORE ANGIOSPERM –Group including most angiosperm species –Divided into three subgroups: magnoliids, monocots, and eudicots

22 KEY TERMS MAGNOLIID –One of the groups of flowering plants –Core angiosperms once classified as “dicots,” but molecular evidence indicates they are neither eudicots nor monocots –Includes species in magnolia, laurel, and black pepper families, several related families

23 It’s Chart Time! Woo Hoo!

24 Flowering Plant Families 1 More than 300 families Magnolia family –Important ornamentals and source of timber –Examples: southern magnolia, tuliptree

25 Magnolia Family

26 Flowering Plant Families 2 Walnut family –Provides nuts for food, wood for furniture –Examples: English walnut, black walnut, pecan Cactus family –Important as ornamentals –Examples: prickly pear, Christmas cactus

27 Walnut Family

28 Fig b, p. 498

29 Fig c, p. 498

30 Cactus Family

31 Flowering Plant Families 3 Mustard family –Many important food crops –Examples: cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, turnip, mustard Rose family –Commercially important fruits and ornamentals –Examples: apple, pear, plum, cherry, apricot, peach, strawberry, raspberry, rose

32 Mustard Family

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36 Rose Family

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39 Flowering Plant Families 4 Pea family –Important food crops –Examples: garden pea, chick pea, green bean, soybean, lima bean, peanut, red clover, alfalfa

40 Pea Family

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43 Flowering Plant Families 5 Potato family –Important food crops and chemicals used as drugs –Examples: potato, tomato, green pepper, eggplant, petunia, deadly nightshade (belladonna)

44 Potato Family

45 Flowering Plant Families 6 Pumpkin family –Food crops –Examples: pumpkins, melons, squashes, cucumbers, cantaloupe, honeydew, muskmelon, cucumber, watermelon

46 Pumpkin Family

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48 Flowering Plant Families 7 Sunflower family –One of the largest families of flowering plants –Examples: chrysanthemums, marigolds, sunflowers, daisies, and some food plants such as lettuce, globe artichokes

49 Sunflower Family

50 Flowering Plant Families 8 Grass family –Most important family of flowering plants from the human standpoint –Examples: rice, wheat, corn, oats, barley, rye, sugarcane, bamboo

51 Grass Family

52 Flowering Plant Families 9 Orchid family –One of the largest families of flowering plants; contains a greater variety of flowers than any other family –Example: the vanilla orchid Agave family –Best known for ornamentals –Examples: century plant, sisal hemp, bowstring hemp

53 Orchid Family


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