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Flowering Plants Chapter 25 Notes.

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1 Flowering Plants Chapter 25 Notes

2 Angiosperms Phylum Anthophyta Anthus “flower” phyt “plant”
300,000+ species Earth’s Dominant Plants

3 Flowering Plants Like gymnosperms: Unlike gymnosperms:
Flowering plants have vascular tissues and produce seeds Heterosporous – megaspores and microspores Unlike gymnosperms: Ovules of flowering plants are enclosed within an ovary

4 KEY TERMS OVULE Structure in the ovary that contains a female gametophyte and develops into a seed after fertilization OVARY Base of a carpel or fused carpels that contains ovules and develops into a fruit after fertilization

5 Orange Fruit Development

6 The Function of Fruits Protects seeds as they grow and mature
Seed Dispersal

7 Flower Parts Female Parts Male Parts The Pistil – 1+ Carpels
Stigma - sticky Style – the neck connecting stigma to ovary Ovary – houses ovules (each contains 1 egg) The Stamen Anther – produces pollen grains Filament - stalk

8 Ecology and Economy Our survival as a species depends on flowering plants Major food crops Products Cork, rubber, tobacco, coffee, chocolate, aromatic oils for perfumes Valuable lumber Fibers and medicines Clothing

9 Economic Botany Subdiscipline of botany that deals with plants of economic importance Most of these are flowering plants

10 KEY TERMS COTYLEDON The seed leaf of a plant embryo, which may contain food stored for germination

11 KEY TERMS MONOCOT Seeds contain a single cotyledon
Monocots have floral parts in threes Monocots include grasses, orchids, irises, onions, lilies, palms Mostly Herbaceous

12 KEY TERMS EUDICOT Seeds contain two cotyledons
Eudicots have floral parts in fours or fives Eudicots include oaks, roses, mustards, cacti, blueberries, sunflowers

13 Life Cycle Flowering plants undergo an alternation of generations:
Sporophyte generation is larger and nutritionally independent Gametophyte generation is reduced to only a few microscopic cells 6th Hour!!!!

A process in the flowering plant life cycle in which there are two fertilizations One results in formation of a zygote Second results in formation of endosperm

15 KEY TERMS ENDOSPERM The 3n nutritive tissue formed at some point in the development of all angiosperm seeds Formed by double fertilization The two polar nuclei fuse with the second sperm cell

16 Life Cycle: Flowering Plants
4th Hour left off here 6th Hour left off here

17 Pollen Grains

18 Adaptations of Flowering Plants
Reproduce sexually by forming flowers Form seeds within fruits after double fertilization Efficient water-conducting vessel elements in xylem Efficient carbohydrate-conducting sieve-tube elements in phloem Have pollen grains transported by wind, water, insects, other animals

19 KEY TERMS APOMIXIS A type of reproduction
Fruits and seeds are formed asexually No fusion of gametes Embryo is genetically similar to parent Plants that reproduce by apomixis: dandelions, citrus trees, blackberries, garlic, certain grasses.

20 Adaptability of Flowering Plants
2nd Hour Left off Here

Group of angiosperms thought to be ancestral to all other flowering plants CORE ANGIOSPERM Group including most angiosperm species Divided into three subgroups: magnoliids, monocots, and eudicots

22 KEY TERMS MAGNOLIID One of the groups of flowering plants
Core angiosperms once classified as “dicots,” but molecular evidence indicates they are neither eudicots nor monocots Includes species in magnolia, laurel, and black pepper families, several related families

23 It’s Chart Time! Woo Hoo!

24 Flowering Plant Families 1
More than 300 families Magnolia family Important ornamentals and source of timber Examples: southern magnolia, tuliptree

25 Magnolia Family

26 Flowering Plant Families 2
Walnut family Provides nuts for food, wood for furniture Examples: English walnut, black walnut, pecan Cactus family Important as ornamentals Examples: prickly pear, Christmas cactus

27 Walnut Family

28 Figure 25.10: The walnut family.
Fig b, p. 498

29 Figure 25.10: The walnut family.
Fig c, p. 498

30 Cactus Family

31 Flowering Plant Families 3
Mustard family Many important food crops Examples: cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, turnip, mustard Rose family Commercially important fruits and ornamentals Examples: apple, pear, plum, cherry, apricot, peach, strawberry, raspberry, rose

32 Mustard Family

33 Mustard Family

34 Mustard Family

35 Mustard Family

36 Rose Family

37 Rose Family

38 Rose Family

39 Flowering Plant Families 4
Pea family Important food crops Examples: garden pea, chick pea, green bean, soybean, lima bean, peanut, red clover, alfalfa

40 Pea Family

41 Pea Family

42 Pea Family 1st Hour Left off Here 12/5/11

43 Flowering Plant Families 5
Potato family Important food crops and chemicals used as drugs Examples: potato, tomato, green pepper, eggplant, petunia, deadly nightshade (belladonna)

44 Potato Family

45 Flowering Plant Families 6
Pumpkin family Food crops Examples: pumpkins, melons, squashes, cucumbers, cantaloupe, honeydew, muskmelon, cucumber, watermelon

46 Pumpkin Family

47 Pumpkin Family

48 Flowering Plant Families 7
Sunflower family One of the largest families of flowering plants Examples: chrysanthemums, marigolds, sunflowers, daisies, and some food plants such as lettuce, globe artichokes

49 Sunflower Family

50 Flowering Plant Families 8
Grass family Most important family of flowering plants from the human standpoint Examples: rice, wheat, corn, oats, barley, rye, sugarcane, bamboo

51 Grass Family

52 Flowering Plant Families 9
Orchid family One of the largest families of flowering plants; contains a greater variety of flowers than any other family Example: the vanilla orchid Agave family Best known for ornamentals Examples: century plant, sisal hemp, bowstring hemp

53 Orchid Family

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